The basic unit, either natural or manufactured, which is twisted into yarns, and then used in the production of a fabric. Fibers
Yarn A continuous strand of textile fibers created when a cluster of individual fibers are twisted together. These long yarns are used to create fabrics, either by knitting or weaving. –Spun Yarns- a yarn made of staple fibers. –Filament Yarns- a yarn made entirely of filament fibers. Twisting Fibers into Yarn –Ply Yarns- When two or more single yarns are twisted together. Ply tells the number of strands twisted together; two ply, three-ply, etc. –Combination Yarns- Are Ply yarns made of two or more different yarns. They can be formed by putting spun and filament yarns together in different ways. –Blend- made when two or more fibers are put together before they are spun into yarns. (usually staple form). This evenly mixes different fibers and their characteristics.
Yarns con’t –High- twist yarns- are firm, strong, dull in texture, and relatively fine in size. –Low twist yarns- are softer, weaker, more lustrous, and less compact. –Novelty Yarns- two or more yarns that are not alike in type or size are combined. Many variations of novelty yarns: used for both knitted fabrics and woven fabrics. –Texturing- Done to manufactured fibers to add crimp, coils, or loops to the long filament fibers. Creates different surface textures. Use heat, chemicals, and special machinery.
Weaving The process of of interlacing two sets of yarns placed at right angles to each other. Two sets of yarns –Warp Yarns- Lengthwise yarns –Weft Yarns- Crosswise yarns
Plain Weave –A basic weave, that is a simple alternate interlacing of warp and filling yarns. Any type of yarn made from any type of fiber can be manufactured into a plain weave fabric.
Twill Weave A basic weave that has a diagonal effect on the face, or right side, of the fabric. In some twill weave fabrics, the diagonal effect may also be seen clearly on the back side of the fabric.
Twill Weave Fabrics D enim Wool Flannel Gabardine Twill Tweeds
Satin Weave A basic weave, characterized by long floats of yarn on the face of the fabric. The yarns are interlaced in such a manner that there is no definite, visible pattern of interlacing and, in this manner, a smooth and somewhat shiny surface effect is achieved. The shiny surface effect is further increased through the use of high luster filament fibers in yarns which also have a low amount of twist. A true satin weave fabric always has the warp yarns floating over filling yarns.
Knits Fibers are twisted into Yarns which are looped together into Fabric.
Knit Fabrics Weft Knits- also called filling. –Jersey (t-shirts) –Rib Knits (used on necklines & sleeve cuffs) Warp Knits –Swimwear- 4-way stretch –Tricot- (lingerie)
Knitting Wales- Lines of loops that run the length of knitted fabrics. Courses- Lines of loops that run crosswise on the knitted fabric. Gauge- The number of stitches or loops per inch in a knitted fabric.
Wales & Courses
Knit Fabrics Jersey Double Knit Panne Velvet (shown) Pointelle Tricot French Terry
Bonded Fabrics Method of permanently joining two layers of fabric together in some way such as with a chemical adhesive or fusible web.
Quilted Fabrics Quilted fabrics are made by “sandwiching” a layer of padding between two layers of fabric. These layers are then joined either with thread stitching or “ultrasonic stitches. (Basically stitches made my stitching with a heated pin that melts the layers together at the stitches.)
Pile Fabrics Pile Fabrics have loops or yarn ends projecting from the flat woven or knit surface. Fabrics: Corduroy (shown) Velvet Velveteen Terrycloth
Lace is an openwork fabric made from a series of knots, twists, or loops. Lace Fabrics