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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules."— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules

2 Introduction Organic Compounds – contain carbon and hydrogen atoms
Inorganic Compounds – contain one or the other, but not both. Most of your body’s molecules are organic.

3 Macromolecules Built from small organic compounds by linking a lot of chains

4 Monomers Large carbon compounds are built up from smaller simpler molecules. Mono = One

5 Polymers When monomers bind to one another to form a complex molecule.
Poly = many Consists of repeated linked units which bind forming Macromolecules. Macro = large

6 Chemical reactions Monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction called condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis. Water is released or is a byproduct of the reaction.

7 Hydrolysis Break down of some complex molecules
Hydrolysis is the reverse of a condensation reaction.

8 4 main types of macromolecules
1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

9 Carbohydrates Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1 Glucose formula: C6H12O6 SHORT TERM ENERGY MAIN Source of Energy

10 Monosaccharide's Simple sugars Examples
Glucose: found in blood of animals Galactose: found in milk Fructose: found in fruit Isomers – same formula, but different structure

11 Disaccharides Contain 2 monosaccharide's joined by dehydration synthesis. Examples Lactose: found in milk Sucrose: transported in plants

12 Polysaccharides Carbohydrates formed from linking individual sugars into long chains. Examples Starch: storage of glucose in in plants Cellulose: contained in cell walls of plants Glycogen: storage of glucose in animals (stored in the muscles and liver)


14 Lipids Do not dissolve in water 3 Functions
Energy storage – LONG TERM ENERGY Structural support for cell membranes Serve as a reactant (starting material) for metabolic reactions

15 Lipids Cont. Phospholipids make up the cell membrane.

16 Fatty Acids Building blocks that make up most lipids
Classified as either saturated or unsaturated

17 Saturated Fatty Acids Have the maximum number of bonds possible
They are full Usually solid at room temp Most come from animal products

18 Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Have double bonds in the carbon chain Most are liquid at room temp Usually referred to as oils

19 Triglycerides Tri = 3 Common lipid that contains fatty acids
Glycerol linked to 3 fatty acids in the shape of an E by condensation reaction.

20 Proteins Composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen atoms
Construction materials for body part like hair, skin, nails, and blood

21 Amino Acids The building blocks that make up most proteins.
20 different kinds of amino acids

22 Enzymes Important group of proteins
Help control chemical reactions by acting as catalysts. Catalysts speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy. Enzyme rates are affected by Ph, hot and cold temperatures.

23 Enzymes - Add Substrates – reactants of enzyme – catalyzed reactions.
Reduces the energy needed for the reaction. Works like a lock and key.


25 VERY IMPORTANT Proteins DO NOT produce, store, transmit, or have anything to do with ENERGY. Do not get confused with protein bars!!!

26 Nucleic Acids Complex organic molecules that store genetic information in the cell.

27 Nucleotides Nucleotides are the building blocks that make up most nucleic acids Consist of sugar, base, phosphate

28 3 main types of Nucleic Acids
1. DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid Genetic info inside the nucleus of cells 2. RNA – Ribonucleic acid - code for protein synthesis 3. ATP – Adenosine Triphosphate - Contains a base, sugar, and 3 phosphates - ATP is used as energy for the cell

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