2Introduction Organic Compounds – contain carbon and hydrogen atoms Inorganic Compounds – contain one or the other, but not both.Most of your body’s molecules are organic.
3MacromoleculesBuilt from small organic compounds by linking a lot of chains
4MonomersLarge carbon compounds are built up from smaller simpler molecules.Mono = One
5Polymers When monomers bind to one another to form a complex molecule. Poly = manyConsists of repeated linked units which bind forming Macromolecules.Macro = large
6Chemical reactionsMonomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction called condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis.Water is released or is a byproduct of the reaction.
7Hydrolysis Break down of some complex molecules Hydrolysis is the reverse of a condensation reaction.
84 main types of macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates2. Lipids3. Proteins4. Nucleic Acids
9CarbohydratesComposed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1Glucose formula: C6H12O6SHORT TERM ENERGYMAIN Source of Energy
10Monosaccharide's Simple sugars Examples Glucose: found in blood of animalsGalactose: found in milkFructose: found in fruitIsomers – same formula, but different structure
11DisaccharidesContain 2 monosaccharide's joined by dehydration synthesis.ExamplesLactose: found in milkSucrose: transported in plants
12PolysaccharidesCarbohydrates formed from linking individual sugars into long chains.ExamplesStarch: storage of glucose in in plantsCellulose: contained in cell walls of plantsGlycogen: storage of glucose in animals (stored in the muscles and liver)
14Lipids Do not dissolve in water 3 Functions Energy storage – LONG TERM ENERGYStructural support for cell membranesServe as a reactant (starting material) for metabolic reactions
15Lipids Cont.Phospholipids make up the cell membrane.
16Fatty Acids Building blocks that make up most lipids Classified as either saturated or unsaturated
17Saturated Fatty Acids Have the maximum number of bonds possible They are fullUsually solid at room tempMost come from animal products
18Unsaturated Fatty Acids Have double bonds in the carbon chainMost are liquid at room tempUsually referred to as oils
19Triglycerides Tri = 3 Common lipid that contains fatty acids Glycerol linked to 3 fatty acids in the shape of an E by condensation reaction.
20Proteins Composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen atoms Construction materials for body part like hair, skin, nails, and blood
21Amino Acids The building blocks that make up most proteins. 20 different kinds of amino acids
22Enzymes Important group of proteins Help control chemical reactions by acting as catalysts.Catalysts speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy.Enzyme rates are affected by Ph, hot and cold temperatures.
23Enzymes - Add Substrates – reactants of enzyme – catalyzed reactions. Reduces the energy needed for the reaction.Works like a lock and key.
25VERY IMPORTANTProteins DO NOT produce, store, transmit, or have anything to do with ENERGY.Do not get confused with protein bars!!!
26Nucleic AcidsComplex organic molecules that store genetic information in the cell.
27NucleotidesNucleotides are the building blocks that make up most nucleic acidsConsist of sugar, base, phosphate
283 main types of Nucleic Acids 1. DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acidGenetic info inside the nucleus of cells2. RNA – Ribonucleic acid- code for protein synthesis3. ATP – Adenosine Triphosphate- Contains a base, sugar, and 3 phosphates- ATP is used as energy for the cell