2 All Organic Compounds (Biomolecules) contain the element Carbon! The Chemistry of CarbonOrganic chemistry is the study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms.
3 Macromolecules Macromolecules are formed by a process known as POLYMERIZATIONthe process of converting monomers into polymersMonomers – building blocks of more complex moleculesPolymers –many monomers
4 Dehydration Synthesis Building large molecules while removing waterJoining monomers to form polymers
5 Hydrolysis Adding water to break apart a molecule Breaking polymers into monomers
6 Four groups of organic compounds found in all living things are: CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic acids
7 Carbohydrates – composed of C, H, O What is the function of carbohydrates? Primary source of energy Energy storage Structure and support Proper function of nervous, digestive, circulatory and immune systems
8 Carbohydrates are compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the ratio of 1:2:1 (CH2O)General molecular formulaMonomer - Glucose
9 Carbohydrates-made by plants through photosynthesis Different sizes of carbohydrates:*Monosaccharides – single sugars (C6H12O6)ex. Glucose (the most common sugar), galactose and fructose*Disaccharides – two single sugars joinedex. Lactose & sucrose & maltose*Polysaccharides – 3 or more single sugars joinedex. Cellulose (in cell walls of plants)Starch (stored in plants)Glycogen (stored in animals)
10 Lipids – C, H, O many more carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms compared to oxygen atoms Lipids are generally not soluble in water.The common categories of lipids are:Fats, oils, and waxesHormonesSteroidsCholesterolWaterproof coveringsCell membrane – lipid bilayer
11 Lipids Function: store energy long term energy storage some lipids are important parts of biological membranes (cell membrane) and waterproof coverings (cuticle on plants)Not considered true polymers because they are small and the monomers are not repeating:Fat – consist of 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids
12 Structure of a Lipids - triglycerides Consists of a glycerol and 3 fatty acidsfatty acidglycerol
16 Proteins – C, H, O, N Held by Peptide bonds Polymers of monomers called amino acids.
17 Amino Acids: 20 common amino acids General formula for an amino acid -NH2 is amino group -COOH is carboxyl -R group (different for each protein -names always end in -ineAmino acids are the monomers of proteins. All amino acids have an amino group at one end and a carboxyl group at the other end.
18 The instructions for arranging amino acids into many different proteins are stored in DNA. Protein MoleculeAminoAcidsProteins help to carry out chemical reactions, transport small molecules in and out of cells, and fight diseases. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids folded into complex structures.
19 Polymers of proteinsPolypeptide – chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
20 Functions of proteins: Catalysts to control the rate of chemical reactionsStructural support and movementTransport & Communication: moves small molecules into or out of cellsHelp to fight disease
21 Examples of Proteins: Blood protein is hemoglobin Enzymes (biological catalysts)Skin, ligaments, tendons, bones, hair, muscle, cartilage, fingernails and toenailsAntibodies
22 Nucleic Acids – C, H, O, N, P Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are polymers assembled from individual monomers known as nucleotides.
23 Nucleic Acids: Monomers Nucleotides consist of three parts:a 5-carbon sugara phosphate groupa nitrogenous baseAdenineThymineCytosineGuanineUracil
24 Nucleic AcidsNucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information. *Genetic Blueprint*Examples and Polymers:ribonucleic acid (RNA)deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)