Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry Common elements found inside a cell: 1. Nitrogen 2. Carbon 3. Oxygen 4. Hydrogen 5. Phosphorus Organic molecules: contain carbon and hydrogen."— Presentation transcript:
Biochemistry Common elements found inside a cell: 1. Nitrogen 2. Carbon 3. Oxygen 4. Hydrogen 5. Phosphorus Organic molecules: contain carbon and hydrogen together. Ex: Glucose Inorganic molecules: do not contain carbon and hydrogen together. Ex: NaCl (table salt) 70-90% of a cell’s volume is water!
Macromolecules Macromolecules are large organic molecules. Think GIANT molecules! Built through a process called Dehydration Synthesis (POLYMERIZATION): Monomers- smallest unit; bonded together to form polymers. Polymers- larger units; series of monomers bonded.
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis Building & Breaking of Macromolecules: A. Hydrolysis: reaction that breaks apart a macromolecule with the addition of water. B. Dehydration Synthesis (POLYMERIZATION): reaction that forms macromolecules with the removal of water.
Types of carbohydrates Monosaccharides: simple sugars * 3-7 Carbon atoms * Examples: Glucose and Fructose (6 C sugars) Deoxyribose and Ribose (5 C sugars) Disaccharides: 2 monosaccharides bonded together * Examples: Sucrose, Lactose
Dehydration Synthesis: Notice water is removed Sugars will bond together See below
Types of carbohydrates Polysaccharides: chains of glucose molecules Examples: Starch: plant stores extra sugars Glycogen (animal starch): storage Cellulose: makes up plant cell walls Chitin: makes up exoskeletons of insects, spiders, crabs, etc
Lipids Building blocks: Glycerol (3 C) and Fatty acid chains. Each Fatty acid attaches to 1 carbon. + Insoluble in water, because they are NON- POLAR
Lipids Functions: 1. Storage: Long term energy 2. Waterproof coverings 3. Make up the cell membrane Examples: Fats & Oils (saturated & unsaturated fatty acids) Waxes (solid @ room temperature) Steroids (cholesterol, testosterone) Phospholipids (cell membrane)
Fatty Acids Saturated: no double bonds between Carbons UnSaturated: double bonds between Carbons Ex: sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, etc.
Proteins Building blocks:AMINO ACIDS Through condensation monomers of A.A. are bonded to form proteins. Examples: * ENZYMES: lower the activation energy for a chemical energy; act as a catalyst * Insulin and hemoglobin * Myosin and Actin: muscle movement * Keratin and Collagen: structure
Peptide Bonds Chemical bonds that join amino acids to form proteins. * 20 Different amino acids are found in every cell. * Peptide: 2 or more amino acids bonded Polypeptide: chains of amino acids * Sequence of amino acid controls the shape & function of the protein!
Nucleic Acids Building block: Nucleotides Nucleotide structure: 1.Phosphate 2. 5 carbon sugar (Deoxyribose or Ribose) 3. 1 of 4 Nitrogen bases (Adenine, Thymine/Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine) Examples: Deoxyribonucleic Acid: DNA Ribonucleic Acid: RNA
Nucleic Acids DNA: double stranded molecule * Genetic Blueprint of Life * Codes for proteins for cells RNA: single stranded molecule *Assembles proteins