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Biochemistry  Common elements found inside a cell: 1. Nitrogen 2. Carbon 3. Oxygen 4. Hydrogen 5. Phosphorus  Organic molecules: contain carbon and hydrogen.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry  Common elements found inside a cell: 1. Nitrogen 2. Carbon 3. Oxygen 4. Hydrogen 5. Phosphorus  Organic molecules: contain carbon and hydrogen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry  Common elements found inside a cell: 1. Nitrogen 2. Carbon 3. Oxygen 4. Hydrogen 5. Phosphorus  Organic molecules: contain carbon and hydrogen together. Ex: Glucose  Inorganic molecules: do not contain carbon and hydrogen together. Ex: NaCl (table salt)  70-90% of a cell’s volume is water!

2 Macromolecules  Macromolecules are large organic molecules. Think GIANT molecules!  Built through a process called Dehydration Synthesis (POLYMERIZATION): Monomers- smallest unit; bonded together to form polymers. Polymers- larger units; series of monomers bonded.

3 Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis  Building & Breaking of Macromolecules: A. Hydrolysis: reaction that breaks apart a macromolecule with the addition of water. B. Dehydration Synthesis (POLYMERIZATION): reaction that forms macromolecules with the removal of water.

4 Macromolecules  Four groups: 1. Proteins 2. Carbohydrates 3. Lipids 4. Nucleic Acids

5 Carbohydrates  Composed of: 1 Carbon: 2 Hydrogen: 1 Oxygen  Functions: Quick Energy source

6 Types of carbohydrates  Monosaccharides: simple sugars * 3-7 Carbon atoms * Examples: Glucose and Fructose (6 C sugars) Deoxyribose and Ribose (5 C sugars)  Disaccharides: 2 monosaccharides bonded together  * Examples: Sucrose, Lactose

7 Dehydration Synthesis: Notice water is removed Sugars will bond together See below

8 Types of carbohydrates  Polysaccharides: chains of glucose molecules  Examples: Starch: plant stores extra sugars Glycogen (animal starch): storage Cellulose: makes up plant cell walls Chitin: makes up exoskeletons of insects, spiders, crabs, etc

9 Lipids  Building blocks: Glycerol (3 C) and Fatty acid chains. Each Fatty acid attaches to 1 carbon. + Insoluble in water, because they are NON- POLAR

10 Lipids  Functions: 1. Storage: Long term energy 2. Waterproof coverings 3. Make up the cell membrane Examples: Fats & Oils (saturated & unsaturated fatty acids) Waxes (solid @ room temperature) Steroids (cholesterol, testosterone) Phospholipids (cell membrane)

11 Fatty Acids  Saturated: no double bonds between Carbons UnSaturated: double bonds between Carbons Ex: sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, etc.

12 Proteins  Building blocks:AMINO ACIDS  Through condensation monomers of A.A. are bonded to form proteins.  Examples: * ENZYMES: lower the activation energy for a chemical energy; act as a catalyst * Insulin and hemoglobin * Myosin and Actin: muscle movement * Keratin and Collagen: structure

13 Peptide Bonds  Chemical bonds that join amino acids to form proteins. * 20 Different amino acids are found in every cell. * Peptide: 2 or more amino acids bonded Polypeptide: chains of amino acids * Sequence of amino acid controls the shape & function of the protein!

14 Nucleic Acids  Building block: Nucleotides Nucleotide structure: 1.Phosphate 2. 5 carbon sugar (Deoxyribose or Ribose) 3. 1 of 4 Nitrogen bases (Adenine, Thymine/Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine) Examples: Deoxyribonucleic Acid: DNA Ribonucleic Acid: RNA

15 Nucleic Acids  DNA: double stranded molecule * Genetic Blueprint of Life * Codes for proteins for cells RNA: single stranded molecule *Assembles proteins


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