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Miss T’s Biochemistry Review
All organic molecules contain what element?
What is a monomer?
Smallest repeating subunit of a molecule. Think train carSmallest repeating subunit of a molecule. Think train car. What would be the monomer of a pearl necklace?
What is a polymer?
Long chain of repeating subunits(The whole train The whole pearl necklace)
What’s the monomer of a carbohydrate?
Name 3 monosaccharides
Glucose Fructose Galactose
What is the chemical formula for monosaccharides (glucose)?
What is a disaccharide?
Double Sugar (Two Monosaccharides attached to one another)
What is the name of the reaction that forms a disaccharide from 2 monosaccharides?
How is the bond formed in a dehydration synthesis reaction?
What is the reverse of a dehydration synthesis reaction?
Hydrolysis (Hydro- = water -Lysis = to split)
What are the 3 disaccharides?
Sucrose (Table Sugar) glucose + fructose Lactose (Milk Sugar) glucose + galactose Maltose (Malt sugar) glucose + glucose
What is the polymer of a carbohydrate?
What are the three types of polysaccharides?
Starch Energy storage in plants Long chains of glucose Glycogen Energy storage in animals Cellulose Structure in plant cell walls
Again, what is the name of the reaction that forms polysaccharides?
What is the main source of energy in living things?
What organic molecule is the reserve form of energy in living things?
What type of molecule is shown below?
What elements are found in lipids?
Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen
What’s the difference between a Carbohydrate & a lipid?
Carbohydrates have a 1:2:1 of C,H&O, lipids have no distinct ratio
What is the monomer of a lipid?
Triglyceride (3 fatty acids and a glycerol)
What is the polymer of a lipid?
Fats, Oils, & Waxes
What type of molecules is found below?
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Unsaturated fats have a double bond that kinks the molecule so they don’t fit well together.
Which of the below is a saturated fat? Unsaturated fat?
What type of fat is solid at room temp? A liquid?
Saturated Fats are solids at room temp (lard, butter) Unsaturated Fats are liquids at room temp (oils)
What is the monomer of a nucleic acid?
What three things make up a nucleotide?
5-Carbon Sugar Phosphate Group Nitrogen Base
What is the function of nucleic acids?
To store and transmit genetic information
What are the polymers of nucleic acids?
DNA & RNA
What is the monomer of a protein?
What is the R group of an amino acid?
R group is like a place holder or a variable in math.
What are four functions of proteins?
Proteins are important: -enzymes -structure in cells -immune response -help form bone & muscle
What are the products & reactants of the following reaction?CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O
What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy?
Potential energy is stored energy or energy of positions Kinetic energy is energy of motion
What is Activation Energy?
The energy that is required to start a reaction
What do enzymes do to a reaction?
They help speed up the rate of a reaction
How do enzymes help speed up a reaction?
By lowering the activation energy
Is this reaction energy releasing or absorbing?
Where on this graph can activation energy be found?
Is the following rxn energy releasing or absorbing?
Is this a bond-forming reaction or bond breaking reaction?
Where is energy stored in a molecule?
In the bonds of the molecule. When you break bonds you release energyIn the bonds of the molecule. When you break bonds you release energy. When you make bonds you store energy
What organic molecule are enzymes?
What is a catalyst?
a substance that SPEEDS up the RATE of a chemical reaction by lowering a chemical reaction’s activation energy
Draw a energy-storing enzyme reaction…
What four factors affect enzyme activity?
Temperature pH Enzyme concentration substrate concentration
What do enzymes do?
Make materials that cells need -Help transmit information
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids macromolecules.
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