2 KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.
3 Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Carbon forms covalent bonds with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms.Carbon-based molecules have three general types of structures.Straight ChainBranched ChainRing
4 Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together. Monomers are the individual subunits.Polymers are made of many monomers.
5 Molecules are formed between monomers when a water molecule is lost Formation of MacromoleculesMolecules are formed between monomers when a water molecule is lostCalled condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis
6 Formation of Macromolecules cont. Polymers are disassembled (broken up) into monomers by hydrolysis, a process that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction.Hydrolysis means “to break with water”. Bonds between monomers are broken by the addition of water molecules.
7 B. Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. 1. CarbohydratesAka sugarsMade of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.Structure 1:2:1SucroseC12H22O11***Dehydration synthesis
8 Carbohydrates include sugars and starches. 3 typesMonosaccharides (MONOMERS) are simple sugars.Disaccharides are two sugars.Polysaccharides many sugars, include starches, cellulose, and glycogen
9 Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose (Monosaccharides) Made during photosynthesisMain source of energy for plants and animalsFructose:Found naturally in fruitsIs the sweetest of monosaccharidesGalactose:Found in milkIs usually in association with glucose or fructose
10 Disaccharide Disaccharide – two monosaccharide bonded together Table sugar (sucrose) = made up of glucose + fructose bonded togetherMilk sugar (lactose) = made up of glucose + galactose bonded together
11 PolysaccharidePolysaccharide = more than two monosaccharide bonded together by glycosidic bondsServe as storage material or building materialStorage (examples: starch, glycogen)Structural (examples: cellulose, chitin)A complex carbohydrate is a polysaccharide with 12 or more monosaccharide units.Pasta and starches are polysaccharidesPotatoes are a starch
12 Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide energy for cells. Some carbohydrates are part of cell structure.Polymer (starch)Starch is a polymer of glucose monomers that often has a branched structure.Polymer (cellulose)Cellulose is a polymer of glucose monomers that has a straight, rigid structuremonomer
13 LipidsElements C, H and ONonpolar molecules – will not mix with water – HydrophobicNot solubleInclude fats, oils, and cholesterolMonomer Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids – carbon chains bonded to hydrogenTriglyceridesFats and oils contain fatty acids bonded to glycerol.
14 Lipids have several different functions. Used to store energy for long termMake up cell membranesUsed to make hormonesWaterproof coverings
15 Fats and oils have different types of fatty acids. Saturated fatty acidsCarbons single bondedCome from animals / Clog arteriesUnsaturated fatty acidsDouble bonded carbon atomsDo not come from animals / Don’t clog arteries
16 At room temperature, the molecules of an unsaturated fat cannot pack together closely enough to solidify because of the kinks in their fatty acid tails.At room temperature, the molecules of a saturated fat are packed closely together, forming a solid.
17 Phospholipids make up all cell membranes. Polar phosphate “head”Nonpolar fatty acid “tails”Phospholipid
18 3. Proteins Majority of processes in body occur because of proteins Polymers of amino acid monomersMade of Elements C, H, O, N20 different amino acids are used to build proteins in organisms.Amino acids made of 3 functional groupsAmine NH2R groupCarboxyl - COOH
22 Proteins differ in the number and order of amino acids. Amino acids interact to give a protein its shape.Incorrect amino acids change a protein’s structure and function.hydrogen bondHemoglobin
23 What are some functions of proteins? 4 Types of Proteins & their function in the body:Regulatory (ex: Enzymes)Controls the rate of reactions in your bodyTransport (ex: Hemoglobin transports O2)Sending nutrients to different parts of the bodyStructural (ex: collagen, found in skin and bones)Forms/ makes up different parts of the bodyProtective (ex: antibodies protect against disease)Makes cells that act as fighters for the body
24 4. Nucleic Acids Stores and transmits genetic information Made of the Elements C, H, N, O, & PTwo types:DNARNAare polymers of monomers called Nucleotides
25 Nucleotides are made of: 5 carbon sugar Phosphate group Nitrogenous baseA phosphate groupnitrogen-containing molecule, called a basedeoxyribose (sugar)
26 DNA stores genetic information RNA builds proteins Transports DNA info from nucleus to other cell parts.RNA
27 Monomer + Monomer, etc. = Polymer Polymer or MacromoleculeMonomerExamplesElementsCarbohydrateMonosaccharidesSugars and StarchsC, H, OLipidsGlycerol and Fatty AcidsFats, Oils and WaxesProteinsAmino AcidsEnzymesC, H, O, N, PNucleic AcidsNucleotidesDNA and RNAC, H, O, N