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2.3 Carbon Based Molecules

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Presentation on theme: "2.3 Carbon Based Molecules"— Presentation transcript:

1 2.3 Carbon Based Molecules

2 KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.

3 Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties.
Carbon forms covalent bonds with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms. Carbon-based molecules have three general types of structures. Straight Chain Branched Chain Ring

4 Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together.
Monomers are the individual subunits. Polymers are made of many monomers.

5 Molecules are formed between monomers when a water molecule is lost
Formation of Macromolecules Molecules are formed between monomers when a water molecule is lost Called condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis

6 Formation of Macromolecules cont.
Polymers are disassembled (broken up) into monomers by hydrolysis, a process that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction. Hydrolysis means “to break with water”. Bonds between monomers are broken by the addition of water molecules.

7 B. Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things.
1. Carbohydrates Aka sugars Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Structure 1:2:1 Sucrose C12H22O11 ***Dehydration synthesis

8 Carbohydrates include sugars and starches.
3 types Monosaccharides (MONOMERS) are simple sugars. Disaccharides are two sugars. Polysaccharides many sugars, include starches, cellulose, and glycogen

9 Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose (Monosaccharides)
Made during photosynthesis Main source of energy for plants and animals Fructose: Found naturally in fruits Is the sweetest of monosaccharides Galactose: Found in milk Is usually in association with glucose or fructose

10 Disaccharide Disaccharide – two monosaccharide bonded together
Table sugar (sucrose) = made up of glucose + fructose bonded together Milk sugar (lactose) = made up of glucose + galactose bonded together

11 Polysaccharide Polysaccharide = more than two monosaccharide bonded together by glycosidic bonds Serve as storage material or building material Storage (examples: starch, glycogen) Structural (examples: cellulose, chitin) A complex carbohydrate is a polysaccharide with 12 or more monosaccharide units. Pasta and starches are polysaccharides Potatoes are a starch

12 Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide energy for cells.
Some carbohydrates are part of cell structure. Polymer (starch) Starch is a polymer of glucose monomers that often has a branched structure. Polymer (cellulose) Cellulose is a polymer of glucose monomers that has a straight, rigid structure monomer

13 Lipids Elements C, H and O Nonpolar molecules – will not mix with water – Hydrophobic Not soluble Include fats, oils, and cholesterol Monomer Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids – carbon chains bonded to hydrogen Triglycerides Fats and oils contain fatty acids bonded to glycerol.

14 Lipids have several different functions.
Used to store energy for long term Make up cell membranes Used to make hormones Waterproof coverings

15 Fats and oils have different types of fatty acids.
Saturated fatty acids Carbons single bonded Come from animals / Clog arteries Unsaturated fatty acids Double bonded carbon atoms Do not come from animals / Don’t clog arteries

16 At room temperature, the molecules of an unsaturated fat cannot pack together closely enough to solidify because of the kinks in their fatty acid tails. At room temperature, the molecules of a saturated fat are packed closely together, forming a solid.

17 Phospholipids make up all cell membranes.
Polar phosphate “head” Nonpolar fatty acid “tails” Phospholipid

18 3. Proteins Majority of processes in body occur because of proteins
Polymers of amino acid monomers Made of Elements C, H, O, N 20 different amino acids are used to build proteins in organisms. Amino acids made of 3 functional groups Amine NH2 R group Carboxyl - COOH

19 Amino acids differ in side groups, or R groups

20 Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds


22 Proteins differ in the number and order of amino acids.
Amino acids interact to give a protein its shape. Incorrect amino acids change a protein’s structure and function. hydrogen bond Hemoglobin

23 What are some functions of proteins?
4 Types of Proteins & their function in the body: Regulatory (ex: Enzymes) Controls the rate of reactions in your body Transport (ex: Hemoglobin transports O2) Sending nutrients to different parts of the body Structural (ex: collagen, found in skin and bones) Forms/ makes up different parts of the body Protective (ex: antibodies protect against disease) Makes cells that act as fighters for the body

24 4. Nucleic Acids Stores and transmits genetic information
Made of the Elements C, H, N, O, & P Two types: DNA RNA are polymers of monomers called Nucleotides

25 Nucleotides are made of: 5 carbon sugar Phosphate group
Nitrogenous base A phosphate group nitrogen-containing molecule, called a base deoxyribose (sugar)

26 DNA stores genetic information RNA builds proteins
Transports DNA info from nucleus to other cell parts. RNA

27 Monomer + Monomer, etc. = Polymer
Polymer or Macromolecule Monomer Examples Elements Carbohydrate Monosaccharides Sugars and Starchs C, H, O Lipids Glycerol and Fatty Acids Fats, Oils and Waxes Proteins Amino Acids Enzymes C, H, O, N, P Nucleic Acids Nucleotides DNA and RNA C, H, O, N

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