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Chapter 19 The Chemistry of Life.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 The Chemistry of Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19 The Chemistry of Life

2 The Molecules of Life Many of the most important molecules in your body are polymers. 4 molecules necessary for life functions formed from smaller subunits proteins carbohydrates nucleic acids lipids

3 biochemistry - study of the chemistry of living things
elements needed to make these molecules hydrogen oxygen carbon nitrogen phosphorous sulfur

4 The Role of Proteins - Catalyst - enzyme
Proteins are the worker bees and have many functions Structural – keratin – hair, nails - collagen – ligaments, tendons Transport – hemoglobin Metabolism – insulin - lactase - Catalyst - enzyme

5 The Structure of Proteins
A protein is polymer composed of amino acids bonded together in chains

6 Structure of Proteins amino acids bond to each other by forming a peptide bond aka protein synthesis water is released in this reaction

7 Three-Dimensional Protein Structure
Proteins can fold into either globular structures or long, fibrous structures. The shape determines how chemical reactions take place

8 Three-Dimensional Protein Structure
denaturation – breaking the forces that hold a protein in it’s shape high temps extreme pH mechanical agitation chemical treatments

9 antibodies antibodies bind to surface of invader
once bound invader is destroyed binding is very specific……. your body must make different antibodies for different invaders

10 The Role of Proteins as Enzymes
enzymes - proteins that catalyze chemical reactions—(speeds up reactions) Substrates are brought close together in the active sites of an enzyme

11 Carbohydrates carbohydrate – molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen in ratio of 2 hydrogen – 1 oxygen – 1 carbon

12 The Role of Carbohydrates
when carbohydrates break down glucose is formed glucose provides most of the energy needed for life glucose is also called blood sugar. animals store excess glucose in liver and muscles as glycogen

13 Structures of Carbohydrates
simple sugars are 5 -7 carbon ring structure 3 common simple sugars = glucose, fructose, and ribose

14 Polysaccharides sucrose is table sugar = 1 glucose and 1 fructose
A polymer of many monosaccharides bonded into a chain is called a polysaccharide examples: starch and cellulose

15 Lipids lipids are fatty acids, which are long chain carboxylic acids
fat =from animals oil = from plants

16 The Structure of Lipids
triglycerides, molecules in which three fatty acids are bonded to a glycerol

17 saturated fatty acids - have single bonds between carbon atoms.
single bond = tightly packed = solid at room temp unsaturated - one or more double bonds between carbon atoms (healthier) double bond prevents tight packing = liquid at room temp

18 Fats in your diet diet high in saturated fats linked to heart disease
high saturated fat = high cholesterol cholesterol lines artery walls

19 Steroids steroid – lipid with 4 ring structure
includes hormones, vitamin D, and cholesterol

20 The Functions of Lipids
2 major functions of lipids store energy Form cell membranes

21 Nucleic Acids genetic information is coded into long-chain polymers called nucleic acids. monomers that make up nucleic acids are called nucleotides 2 types = DNA & RNA

22 The Structure of Nucleic Acids
nucleotides are made up of three parts: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a nitrogen base

23 Function of DNA & RNA DNA – holds genetic information
RNA - transfers genetic info from DNA (nucleus) to place in cell where proteins are formed

24 Vitamins Vitamin – molecule necessary for life but needed only in small amounts 2 classes of vitamins fat-soluble – vitamins A, D, E, and K water soluble – vitamins B and C

25 How can I get too much vitamins?
excess water - soluble vitamins are dissolved in urine and excreted out – you can’t get too much excess fat- soluble vitamins are stored in body fat – be careful you don’t take too much

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