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31 32 9/18/2014 9/18/13 Starter: Based on the word, what do you think Biochemistry means?? Practice: Video Application: Notes with review Biochemistry Connection/Exit: 1.What are the major biomolecules made and used by living organisms? 2.What is the structure of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids? 3.What is the function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids? 1 Biochemistry 9/18/2014
Date Lecture/ Activity/ Lab Page 9/17 Biochemistry Vocabulary 29-30 9/18 Biochemistry notes 31-32 Table of Contents
Introduction All compounds can be classified in 2 broad categories: 1)Organic compounds- Contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms 2) Inorganic compounds- Can have one or the other, but do not contain both carbon and hydrogen atoms
Most of your body’s molecules are organic compounds. Macromolecules are built from small organic compounds the same way a railroad train is built, by linking a lot of smaller units together into long chains.
i. Large carbon compounds are built up from smaller simpler molecules called monomers (mono = one ) ii. Monomers can bind to one another to form complex molecules known as polymers (poly = many) iii. A polymer consists of repeated, linked units, which can also bind forming large polymers called Macromolecules. (macro = large )
Animation of Condensation http://nutrition.jbpub.com/resources/animations.cfm?id=6 Monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction called condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis. During the formation of polymers, Water (H 2 O), is released or is by-product of the reaction.
Animation showing Hydrolysis http://nutrition.jbpub.com/resources/animations.cfm?id=7&debug=0 The breakdown of some complex molecules, such as polymers, occurs through a process known as hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is the reverse of a condensation reaction. The addition of water, to some polymers can break the bonds that hold them together.
There are four main types of macromolecules found in living organisms: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids Lipids
Carbohydrates i.Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1 : 2 : 1 1.General formula: (CH 2 O) n where n is the number of carbon atoms. a.Example: The sugar glucose is a small carbohydrate; its n equals 6. Therefore its chemical formula is C 6 H 12 O 6.
The building blocks (or monomers) of carbohydrates are monosaccharides. i.Monosaccharides are simple sugars (saccharide = sugar). Examples: 1.Glucose: commonly found in blood of animals 2.Galactose: a simple sugar found in milk 3.Fructose: commonly found in fruit a.Glucose and Fructose both have the formula C 6 H 12 O 6, Sometimes compounds may have the same formula, however they have different structures/ arrangements. In such cases, those compounds are called isomers.
i.Disaccharides contain 2 monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis. Examples: ii. 1.Lactose: commonly found in milk, made up of Galactose + Glucose 2. Sucrose: “table sugar”, transported in plants, made up of Fructose + Glucose
i.Polysaccharides are carbohydrates formed from linking individual sugars into long chains. Examples: 1.Starch: a common storage form of glucose in plants (breads, pasta, potatoes) 2.Cellulose: a polysaccharide contained in the cell walls of plants; gives strength and rigidity to plant cells. 3.Glycogen: a common storage form of glucose in animals (stored in the muscles and liver to be used as quick energy)
Carbohydrates Function: Energy Structural support Cell wall Cell membrane marker
I. (include fats, oils, waxes, etc.) i.Class of macromolecules that do not dissolve in water ii.Lipids usually serve one of three functions: 1.Energy storage 2.structural support in cell membranes (phospholipids) 3.serve as reactants ( starting materials) for metabolic reactions iii.Fatty acids are the building blocks (or monomers) that make up most lipids. iv.Fatty acids are classified as either saturated or unsaturated. Lipids
Lipids The classification depends on the proportion of hydrogen atoms to carbon - carbon bonds in the molecule: i.Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of bonds possible, they are full. 1.Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature, and most come from animal products. ii.Unsaturated fatty acids have double bond(s) in the carbon chain and are not full. 1.Most unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature, and are usually referred to as oils.
Lipids Saturated animal fats are associated with circulatory disorders; plant oils can be substituted for animal fats in the diet. I. A common lipid that contains fatty acids is a triglyceride. Triglycerides (referred to as neutral fats) are glycerol linked to three fatty acids (in the shape of an “E”) by condensation reaction.
Proteins I. i.Proteins are organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen atoms. ii.Proteins are the construction materials for body parts such as hair, skin, nails, and blood. iii.Amino acids are the building blocks (or monomers) that make up most proteins 1.There are 20 different kinds of amino acids that humans use. iv.One important group of proteins - enzymes - help control chemical reactions by acting as catalysts. Catalysts speed up reactions by lowering activation energy.
Proteins Function: Lots of functions! Enzymes (speed rate of chemical reactions) Structural components in cells Mechanical functions in muscles and cytoskeleton (internal cell framework) Cell signaling Immune response
Nucleic Acids ○ Nucleic Acids are complex organic molecules that store genetic information in the cell. ○ Nucleotides are the building blocks (or monomers) that make up most nucleic acids. Nucleotides consist of a sugar (pentose) + base (nitrogenous) + phosphate. Example- DNA nucleotide:
Nucleic Acids I.Three main types of nucleic acids i.DNA = Deoxyribonucleic acid 1.Is the genetic information inside the nucleus of cells ii.RNA = Ribonucleic acid 1.Instructions which code for protein synthesis iii.ATP = Adenosine triphosphate = has a slightly different structure than DNA and RNA. It contains a base + sugar + three phosphates a. ATP is used as energy for the cell
247 248 5/5/2014 9/18/13 Starter: Based on the word, what do you think Biochemistry means?? Practice: Video Application: Notes with review Biochemistry Connection/Exit: 1.What are the major biomolecules made and used by living organisms? 2.What is the structure of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids? 3.What is the function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids? 1 Biochemistry 5/5/2014