Carbon Organic molecules contain carbon. Carbon has 4 electrons available for bonding.
Isomers Have same chemical formula but different three dimensional structure
Polymer Polymer - a molecular chain made up of smaller molecules bonded together (poly = many)
Monomer Monomer - 1 subunit of a polymer (mono = one) Glucose is an example of a monomer
Macromolecules Macromolecule - large organic molecule made up of polymers
Carbohydrates Organic compound made up of C, H & O Store and release energy Monosaccharide (glucose:C 6 H 12 O 6, fructose) Disaccharide - 2 monosaccharides (glucose + fructose = sucrose) Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) - food storage and cell structures –Glycogen - animal cells –Starch - plant energy –Cellulose-plant cell struct.
Lipids Monomers are fatty acids Ex.– fats, oils, & phospholipids in cell membranes Non-polar - insoluble in water Structure –3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol
Lipid function Long-term energy storage, insulation, cell structure (lipid bi-layer/cell membrane)
Saturated Fatty Acid Solid at room temperature Bad for heart Meat, butter Contain lots of hydrogen atoms and carbons are linked with single bonds in fatty acid chain
Unsaturated Fatty Acid Liquid at room temperature Good for your heart Olive oil, nuts, fish. Contain few hydrogen atoms because carbon atoms have double bonds in fatty acid chain.
Proteins Proteins provide structure (skin, hair, cartilage, muscle) and are carry out all cell metabolism (enzymes) The shape determines function Monomer—amino acids Linked together by peptide bonds (type of covalent bond)
Protein Structure Primary – amino acid sequence Secondary - hydrogen bonding between a.a.’s –causes twisting; 2-D shape Tertiary - additional folding –functional protein; 3-D shape Quaternary - 2 or more amino acid (polypeptide) chains –complex
Nucleic Acids Macromolecule that stores and transfers genetic material Made up of nucleotides –made up of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid RNA: ribonucleic acid
Reactions of Polymers Dehydration Synthesis – small molecules are linked together to form large molecules Lose one molecule of water when this happens Hydrolysis – large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules. Water molecule is used to break up the polymer
Dehydration Synthesis Also called condensation reaction Two molecules become covalently bonded to one another One molecule looses OH – the other looses H to form water H 2 O
Hydrolysis Molecule is split into two parts by reacting with water. One of the parts gets an OH - from the water molecule and the other part gets an H + from the water.