2 The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon is the most versatile elementCan form up to 4 bonds at one time.Carbon may also form bonds with other Carbons allowing for unlimited chain lengthsMay form Single -, Double =, or Triple ≡ bonds with other CarbonsCan even fold over forming rings
3 All compounds can be classified into 2 broad categories: Organic compounds- Contain carbon and hydrogen atomsInorganic compounds- Can have one or the other, but do not contain both carbon and hydrogen atomsMost of your body’s molecules are organic compounds.
4 How are biomolecules made? Macromolecules are built from small organic compounds the same way a railroad train is built, by linking a lot of smaller units together into long chains.Large carbon compounds are built up from smaller simpler molecules called monomers(mono = one )
5 How are biomolecules made? Monomers can bind to one another to form complex molecules known as polymers(poly = many)A polymer consists of repeated, linked units, which can also bind forming large polymers called Macromolecules.(macro = large )
6 How are biomolecules made? Monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction called a condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis. During the formation of polymers, Water (H2O), is released or is a by-product of the reaction.
7 How are biomolecules made? The breakdown of some complex molecules, such as polymers, occurs through a process known as hydrolysis.Hydrolysis is the reverse of a condensation reaction. The addition of water, to some polymers can break the bonds that hold them together.
9 There are four main types of macromolecules found in living organisms: Types of BiomoleculesThere are four main types of macromolecules found in living organisms:CarbohydratesLipidsNucleic AcidsProteins
10 A quick source of energy!! CarbohydratesA quick source of energy!!
11 What elements are carbs composed of? Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen(O) In a ratio of – C : H : O 1 : 2 : 1 Example: Glucose C6H12O6 6For every 1 Carbon (C) You will have2 Hydrogens (H)and1 Oxygen (O).
12 Carbohydrate Monomers (Building Blocks) Monosaccharides: commonly found in ringsMono=one, Saccharide=sugarMonosaccharides are simple sugars Examples:Glucose: commonly found in blood of animalsGalactose: a simple sugar found in milkFructose: commonly found in fruit
14 Carbohydrate Polymers Polysaccharides:Poly=Many, Saccharide=sugarPolysaccharides are carbohydrates formed from linking individual sugars together.They can be very large and complex, or they can be small and made up of only two monomers linked together.These are called Disaccharides
15 Carbohydrate Polymers Disaccharides: Poly=Two, Saccharide=sugar Disaccharides contain 2 monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
16 Carbohydrate Polymers Dissacharide Examples:Sucrose:“Table Sugar”Made up ofFructose + GalactoseLactose:Found in MilkMade up of Galactose + Glucose
17 Carbohydrate Polymers Complex Carb (Larger polysaccharide) examplesStarch: a form of glucose in plants(breads, pasta, potatoes)
18 Carbohydrate Polymers Complex Carb (Larger polysaccharide) examplesCellulose: contained in the cell walls of plants; gives strength and rigidity to plant cells.
19 Carbohydrate Polymers Complex Carb (Larger polysaccharide) examplesGlycogen: a common storage form of glucose in animals (stored in the muscles and liver to be used as quick energy)
21 What elements are Lipids composed of? Carbon (C) and Hydrogen (H) Lots of Hydrogen!!!!!
22 Important Lipid Facts Lipids are Fats, Oils and Waxes Lipids do not dissolve in water
23 Important Lipid Facts Lipids usually serve one of three functions: Energy storageWhen carbs have been used up we use fatty acids for energy.
24 Important Lipid Facts Lipids usually serve one of three functions: structural support in cell membranes (phospholipids)
25 Important Lipid Facts Lipids usually serve one of three functions: Serve as messengersSteroids are lipids that carry messages through the bloodstream.
26 Lipids do not have true monomers Lipid Monomers?Lipids do not have true monomersFatty acids are the building blocks (or monomers) that make up most lipids.Fatty acids are classified as either saturated or unsaturated.
27 Lipid Monomers? How do you tell the difference? Saturated fatty acids have NO DOUBLE BONDS!!They have the maximum number of bonds possible, they are full (of hydrogen).Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature, and most come from animal products.Can you think of some examples?
28 Lipid Monomers? How do you tell the difference? Unsaturated fatty acids have double bond(s) in the carbon chain and are not full.Most unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature, and are usually referred to as oils.Can you think of some examples?
29 Lipid PolymersA common lipid that contains fatty acids is a Triglyceride.They are composed of a glycerol linked to three fatty acids (in the shape of an “E”) by condensation reaction.
30 Store and transmit hereditary and genetic information. Nucleic AcidsStore and transmit hereditary and genetic information.
31 What elements are Nucleic Acids composed of? Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H),Oxygen(O), Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorous (P)
32 Nucleic Acid Monomers (Building Blocks) Nucleotides are the building blocks (or monomers) that make up most nucleic acids.Nucleotides consist ofsugar(pentose) + nitrogenous base + phosphate
33 Instructions which code for protein synthesis Nucleic Acid PolymersThree main types of nucleic acidsDNA = Deoxyribonucleic acidInstructions which code for protein synthesis
34 Is the genetic information inside the nucleus of cells Nucleic Acid PolymersThree main types of nucleic acidsRNA = Ribonucleic acidIs the genetic information inside the nucleus of cells
35 Nucleic Acid Polymers ATP is used as energy for the cell Three main types of nucleic acidsATP = Adenosine triphosphateATP has a slightly different structure than DNA and RNA.It contains a base + sugar + three phosphatesATP is used as energy for the cell
36 Proteins Construction materials for body parts like bones, muscles and blood.Fight diseaseRegulate cell Processes
37 What elements are Proteins composed of? Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H),Oxygen(O), and Nitrogen (N)
38 Protein Monomers (Building Blocks) Amino acids are the building blocks that make up most proteinsThere are 20 different kinds of amino acids that humans use.Composed of :An Amino Group ( -NH2)&A Carboxyl Group (-COOH)
40 Protein Examples One important group of proteins Enzymes Enzymes help control chemical reactions by acting as catalysts. Catalysts speed up reactions by lowering activation energy.
41 Special Proteins Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. Enzymes One important group of proteinsEnzymesProteins that catalyze chemical reactions.Catalyze: increase the rates of
42 Special ProteinsEnzymes help control chemical reactions by acting as catalysts. Catalysts speed up reactions by lowering activation energy.Activation Energy: the minimum energy required to start a chemical reaction.
43 Special ProteinsEnzymes speed up the rate of reaction by DECREASING the ACTIVATION ENERGY
44 Enzymes the speed of reactions that would otherwise occur slowly. increase
45 Each enzyme has a certain job and does only that job. Enzymes are special proteins that build orbreak down materials inside or outside the cell.
46 How are Enzymes used in the body??? DIGESTIONINFLAMMATIONduring digestion, intestinal cells produce enzymes, which split the food into small molecules so they can be absorbed into the bloodenzymes are produced by neighboring cells, so that the blood clotting process can happen and to remove destroyed tissue.
47 Enzymes and Homeostasis TemperatureTemperatures above 40◦C (104◦F) denature/destroy enzymes.pHExtremely high or low pH values generally result in complete loss of activity for most enzymes.