Causes of the new imperialism 1.Economic interests 2.Political and military interests 3.Social and cultural interests
Causes of the new imperialism 1.Economic interests
Causes of the new imperialism 2. Political and military interests
Causes of the new imperialism 3. Social and cultural interests
The Success of Western Imperialism - 1870-1914 Weakness of Nonwestern States (e.g. Ottoman Middle East, Mughal India, Qing China) Western Advantages- strong economies, well-organized governments, powerful militaries
Forms of Imperial Rule 1.Colonies (a) direct rule - officials & soldiers sent to administer colonies (French) (b) indirect rule - sultans, chiefs, other local rulers - urged leaders to get education in home country to become westernized (British) 2. Protectorates - local rulers left in place but expected to follow advice of European advisers - cheaper than running a colony
Africa European contacts increase - Africa known as the "dark continent" because little was known about its interior. Missionaries - tried to spread Christianity, spoke out against slavery - built schools, churches, medical clinics - paternalistic - saw Africans as children in need of guidance.
Explorers: 1855 David Livingston – Victoria Falls 1858 Richard Burton – Lake Tanganyika 1869 Henry Stanley. 1871 Stanley finds Livingstone 1870s - Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza
Africa A Scramble for Colonies - Belgian King Leopold II - hired Henry Stanley to explore Congo River basin, arrange trade treaties with African leaders - hoped for conquest and profit - his activities in the Congo set off a scramble by other European nations
Africa Berlin Conference - 1884 – European powers met to decide how to carve up Africa - no Africans invited - recognized Leopold’s claim to the Congo Free State but called for free trade on Congo and Niger rivers
Africa Belgium - The Congo French - West and Central Africa Britain in South Africa Portugal in Angola and Mozambique Italy in Libya Germany in Eastern and Southwestern Africa
India 1858 Britain takes direct control Britain sees India as a source of raw materials (cotton) and market for goods (shirts ). British East India Company controls 3/5 India 1857 Sepoy Rebellion (Indian Mutiny)
China In late 1700s British merchants begin to make huge profits in trade of opium grown in India for Chinese tea 1839 Opium Wars starts. 1842 Treaty of Nanjing ‘unequal treaties’ includes the lease of Hong Kong. (right)
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