Presentation on theme: "New Imperialism. Colonialism A policy of politically dominating a dependent territory or people. Developed for settlement or commercial intentions."— Presentation transcript:
Colonialism A policy of politically dominating a dependent territory or people. Developed for settlement or commercial intentions.
Imperialism First established in ancient Rome. The national policy of taking control of another country or territory to gain land, power or wealth. Imperialists can take over by military force, by controlling trade or by reorganizing the government of another country. Developed for financial reasons.
Forms of Imperial Rule Direct Rule: Practice of sending officials and soldiers to administer their colonies. France Indirect Rule: To govern their colonies they used local rulers. Britain
Forms of Imperial Rule Protectorate: Local rulers were left in place but were expected to follow the advice of European advisors on issues such as trade. Cost less to run. Sphere of Influence: An area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges.
New Imperialism In the mid-1800s Britain was the most powerful nation in the world. Its factories produced more goods than those of other countries. By the late 1800s however, Germany and the United States were challenging Britains economic leadership. Faced with possible decline, Britain looked to its colonies for markets and resources.
Other countries followed Britains lead and came to see colonies as necessary for their economic well being. These countries included: Germany France Portugal Netherlands/Dutch Belgium Spain Italy
Non- Western World In Decline From Older civilizations were on the decline especially the Ottoman Empire, Mughal India and Qing China. In Africa: Civil wars and the damaging effect of the slave trade brutally weakened established African states.
Scramble for Africa Western states looked to Africa for economic, political, technological and social reasons. Imperialist Europe turned to Africa to divide in up amongst themselves. The modernizations of trade in the west increased the need for raw materials
Scramble for Africa European powers had the advantages of strong economies and well-organized governments. African states were not strong enough to resist the Western forces.
Resistance Europeans met armed resistance across the continent of Africa. The Algerians battle the French for years. The British battle the Zulus in southern Africa. Europeans were able to put down all forms of organized resistance. Maxim gun: Early machine gun against African resistance. Ethiopia was the only kingdom to resist European colonization and maintain independence.
Effects of Imperialism As late as 1880, European nations ruled just 1/10 of the continent of Africa. By 1914, Europeans had claimed all of Africa except Liberia (a small territory of freed slaves from the United States) and Ethiopia.
At the beginning of the twentieth century in many parts of Europe, even the working class and peasantry were able to purchase goods from far away places. Imperialism spread Western Civilization around the globe. The influence of Western ideas, institutions, techniques, language and culture is apparent everywhere.