6Military Factors Advances in technology Stronger armies & navies Need for military basesAfricans & Asians could not compete
7Nationalistic Factors Nationalism = a devotion to one’s nationFeelings of superiorityWhite man = “civilized”Africans & Asians = “uncivilized”“The White Man’s Burden” (Rudyard Kipling)
8POLITICAL & MILITARY INTERESTS CAUSES OF IMPERIALISMPOLITICAL & MILITARY INTERESTSECONOMIC INTERESTSManufacturers wanted access to natural resources.Manufacturers hoped for new markets for factory goods.Colonies offered a valuable outlet for Europe’s growing population.Merchant ships and naval vessels needed bases around the world.Western leaders were motivated by nationalism.HUMANITARIAN GOALSSOCIAL DARWINISMMany westerners felt concern for their “little brothers” overseas.Missionaries, doctors, and colonial officials believed they had a duty to spread western civilization.Many westerners viewed European races as superior to all others.They saw imperial conquest as nature’s way of improving the human species.
9FORMS OF IMPERIAL RULE COLONIES SPHERES OF INFLUENCE PROTECTORATES In a protectorate, local rulers were left in place but were expected to follow the advice of European advisers.A protectorate cost less to run than a colony and usually did not require a large military presence.A sphere of influence is an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges.The United States claimed Latin America as its sphere of influence.The French practiced direct rule, sending officials to administer their colonies.The British practiced on indirect rule, using local rulers to govern their colonies.
11White Man’s BurdenWhy did Kipling consider imperialism to be beneficial?He thought the “captive” peoples would benefit from the imperialists’ efforts to end famine and disease.
12AFRICA IN THE EARLY 1800’S WEST AFRICA NORTH AFRICA EAST AFRICA Since long before 1800, the region had close ties to the Muslim world.In the early 1800s, much of the region remained under the rule of the declining Ottoman Empire.On the grasslands, Islamic leaders preached jihad, a holy struggle, to revive and purify Islam.In the forest regions, the Asante controlled smaller states. These smaller tributary states were ready to turn to Europeans to help them defeat their Asante rulers.EAST AFRICASOUTH AFRICAZulu aggression caused mass migrations and wars and created chaos across much of the region.Islam had long influenced the coast, where a profitable slave trade was carried on.
13How the scramble began 1870s Belgian King Leopold II- established trade with native Africans in the CongoThis single act began an Imperialistic frenzy to Africa
14The Berlin Conference Where: Berlin (surprise), Germany When:Who: The US and 14 European nationsMissing: Africans (weren’t invited!)Purpose: to avoid potential conflict in Africa
15Created the following guidelines: Any sovereign power that wanted to claim any territory should inform the other powersAny such annexation should be validated by effective occupationTreaties with African rulers were to be considered a valid title to sovereignty
17AFRICAN RESISTENCE Algerians battled the French for years. The Zulus in southern Africa and the Asante in West Africa battled the British.East Africans fought wars against the Germans.In Ethiopia, King Menelik II modernized his country. When Italy invaded, Ethiopia was prepared. Ethiopia was the only nation, aside from Liberia, to preserve its independence.