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The Scramble for Africa

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Presentation on theme: "The Scramble for Africa"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Scramble for Africa

2 Imperialism Imperialism- the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country

3 Africa Before European Domination
Powerful African armies were able to keep Europeans out for 400 years European travel to the African interior was impossible African rivers hard to navigate Disease made it difficult Steam-powered riverboats allowed interior exploration

4 Nations Compete for Overseas Empires
People who went on expeditions were explorers, missionaries, or humanitarians Commonality= Opposed European & American slave trade

5 David Livingstone Missionary from Scotland in Central Africa to promote Christianity Missing for several years Henry Stanley sent to find him “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”

6 Forces Driving Imperialism

7 Nationalism Europeans viewed an empire as a measure of national greatness Racism- Europeans believed that they were better than other peoples

8 Social Darwinism “Survival of the fittest”
Those who were fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were considered superior to others Wanted to “Westernize” and civilize the peoples of the foreign land

9 Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa
Technology Machine gun Steam engine (railroads, steamboats, etc) Medicine Prevented diseases for Europeans Diversity among Africans Differences in languages and cultures discouraged unity

10 Division of Africa European countries were competing for African territories rich with diamonds and gold Berlin Conference- meeting of 14 European nations to lay down rules for the division of Africa European nations divided the continent with little thought about how African ethnic and linguistic groups were distributed No African ruler was invited to attend the meeting

11 Raw Materials Europeans needed Africa’s rich mineral resources to produce goods Copper, tin Developed cash-crop plantations Displaced food crops grown by African farmers, so many of the natives were starving

12 South Africa Zulus v. British over this territory
British used their superior guns and other advanced weapons to defeat the Zulus

13 Boer War British v. the Dutch (Boers) over territory
First modern “total” war British defeated the Boers and controlled the Union of South Africa

14 New Period of Imperialism

15 Influence of European Nations
Europeans wanted an influence over the economic, political, and social lives of the people They were determined to shape the economies of the lands to benefit European economies Also wanted the people to adopt European customs

16 Forms of Control To establish control of an area, Europeans used four different methods: colony, protectorate, sphere of influence, and economic imperialism

17 Methods of Management Indirect and direct control Indirect
British asked a local ruler to accept British authority to rule Local officials handled daily management and soon the local population would govern itself

18 Methods of Management, cont.
Direct Europeans did not believe that Africans could rule themselves Paternalism- policy used by Europeans in which they governed people in a paternal way by providing for their needs but not giving them any rights Assimilation- policy where the native country would adopt the culture and customs of the European country

19 British Imperialism in India

20 British East India Company
Controlled large portions of India Sepoys- Indian soldiers in the British army Great Britain considered India its “Jewel in the Crown” because it was the most valuable of all British colonies

21 Indian Raw Materials Tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, jute, and opium
Traded opium to China and exchanged it for tea, which they then sold to England

22 Impact of Colonialism Negative- British held all of the political and economic power, with little concern for Indian natives Positive- India was able to modernize because of new technologies brought by the British

23 Sepoy Mutiny Many Indians believed that the British were trying to convert them to Christianity British also expressed constant racism towards Indians

24 Sepoy Mutiny, cont. Rumors spread that the sepoys’ rifle cartridges were greased with beef and pork fat (Hindus and Muslims were outraged) Majority of sepoys refused to accept the cartridges and they were jailed by the British Soldiers rebelled and captured the city of Delhi Rebellion spread and it took over a year for the British East India Company to take back control

25 Turning Point British government took direct control of India in 1858= Raj British did not believe that Indians could rule themselves

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