Presentation on theme: "EMPIRE BUILDING IN AFRICA"— Presentation transcript:
1 EMPIRE BUILDING IN AFRICA Section 2EMPIRE BUILDING IN AFRICAAfter the next continent to suffer imperialism was AfricaBy the 1900 early 20th century nationalism will emerge
2 A. West Africa and North Africa Europeans looked to this area for the raw materials. Trade in enslaved people had almost ended. Great Britain annexed the west coastal states as the first colony. France added French West Africa to empire.The countries to look at Africa for raw materials were: Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy , Spain and Portugal. These had also been the major powers of European exploration.Raw material became the primary source of profit from these areas after the slave trade ended in the late 1800s. Raw material of particular interest were peanuts, timber, hides, and palm oil.Great Britain 1874 will be eventually annex the west coast of Africa and they will become the first British colony of what was known as the Gold Coast. They will also gain control of Nigeria.France will also start to claim areas in the west coast as well. They had the largest land claim in AfricaGermany will enter the race as well in the east and the south
3 A. West Africa and North Africa Egypt had sought independence under Muhammad Ali. He introduced a series of reforms to bring Egypt into the modern world. Modernized the army, set up education and helped create small industries French entrepreneur Ferdinand de Lesseps signed a contract to begin building the Suez Canal. This caused the British to also become interested in Egypt. Britain bought Egypt’s share in the Suez Canal. Egypt became a British protectorate in 1914.French controlled Algeria and Tunisia, a protectorate over Morocco.Italy try to take over Ethiopia but were defeated but did take Tripoli, renamed Libya.Egypt is in north Africa which had been part of the Ottoman empire, when the empire declines an ottoman officer will lay claim to it ( Muhammad Ali) and establish it as its own state.He introduced reforms to bring Egypt into the modern age. Army, public schools, small industries, productions.Egypt started to become a very wealthy country and Europe wanted to connect to the Nile river valley. Wanted a canal to connect Cairo to the Mediterranean and the red sea. They did this by creating the Suez Canal. Eventually the British tried to gain control of the canal because it was a life line to India. Eventually they did gain control of the canal and Egypt itself became a protectorate ( depends on another country for protection).The French also gained control of the Sudan as a way to have a buffer to protect their claims in Egypt and the Suez Canal.French also had control in the north as well and so did Italy.
4 B. Central and East Africa 1. Central AfricaDavid Livingstone was one of first to explore here. He trekked through uncharted regions for thirty years. He made detailed notes of his discoveries and sent information back home. A major goal was to find a navigable river that would open Central Africa to Europe and Christianity.When he disappeared Henry Stanley sent to find him. He did find him in the shore of Lake Tanganyika Stanley remained in Africa after Livingstone died. He explored the Congo River and sailed down it to the Atlantic Ocean. King Leopold II of Belgium was the real driving force behind the colonization of Central Africa his claims to vast territories of the Congo aroused widespread concern among other European states.After claiming the west east and the south European powers began to look to the central areas. Explorers like David Livingston was the reason that these areas had heightened interest.David Livingston was a researcher who spent 30 years in Africa. He made detailed notes of his discoveries and sent the notes back to London where they were made into maps. He was really looking for a navigable river to open up central Africa for commerce and Christianity.Livingston was went missing for a little while and Henry Stanley was hired to find the explorer. He did find him but Livingston died later. Stanley took over his work but did not like Africa remarking that “ I detest this land.He was soon pushed to explore the Congo which and convince the British to settler there which they refused to do. He then turned to Kin Leopold of Belgium with the Idea of settlement. Leopold excepted this ideas without hesitation and was the main reason for the settlement of central Africa. The main reason he also fought for this area was the raw material of rubber resources. By the final decade of the 19th century, J. B. Dunlop’s 1887 invention of inflatable, rubber bicycle tubes and the growing popularity of the automobile dramatically increased the global demand for rubber. To monopolize the resources of the entire CFS, Leopold issued three decrees in 1891 and 1892 that reduced the native population to serfs. Collectively, these forced the natives to deliver all ivory and rubber, harvested or found, to State officers thus nearly completing Leopold’s monopoly of the ivory and rubber trade.
5 B. Central and East Africa Britain and Germany had become the chief rivals in east Africa. Germany tried to develop colonies In East Africa. To settle any conflicting claims between European countries the Berlin Conference met. The conference officially recognized both British and German claims for territory in East Africa.Germany had been late to the rush because of the German prime minister Otto Von Bismarck ( the man who had been a big factor in the push to unify Germany) he didn’t believe in colonization but because he was a man of realpolitick he understood it was a needed thing for the times of any great powers. Britain also wanted more land in east Africa to have a connection with their Egyptian holdings in the North. This made Germany and great Britain rivals. The disputes were settled at the Berlin conference of where they land out the claims for each power.
6 C. South AfricaPresences here grew rapidly. The Boers, or Afrikaners, as the descendants of the original Dutch settlers, were called, occupied Cape town. The British later seized this land and encouraged settlers to come to what they called Cape Colony.During the Napoleonic wars ( NAPOLEANS FIGHT TO TAKE OVER Europe) British seized the land from the Dutch.
7 C. South Africa 1. The Boer Republics Boers moved from the coastal lands and headed north on the GREAT TREK. Formed two independent republics called the Orange Free State and Transvaal. Boers put many of the indigenous people in reservations. Had frequently battled with the ZULU people. Shaka was their great leader. They were later defeated by the British.The Boers were sick of the British rule and decided to move. 1 out of every five made the trek from the coast to area between the orange and the Val rivers and established two independent republics. They believed that white supremacy was deemed by god and that non white people had ne place in their society other than laborers or servants and were put on reservations. They had many battles with a groups called the Zulu who were able to remain independent until the British became involved and they defeated.Shanka Zulu was a Zulu ruler lived buffalo battle tactic and unification
8 C. South Africa 2. Cecil Rhodes 1880’s British policy influenced by him. Great champion of British expansion. His ambition eventually led to his downfall. He was forced to resign as prime minister.He founded diamond and gold companies that made him fortunes and acquired territory north of Transvaal which he call Rhodesia. His real goal was to create a railroad that would link north and south Africa. He believed that god had intended for him to paint all of south Africa red. He was forced to resign because Britain feared he would upset peace with the Boers.
9 C. South Africa 3. The Boer War Wars between British and Boer. Guerilla resistance by the Boers. Hard fought but eventually larger British army won. By 1910 British created an independent Union of South Africa. Would be self governing nation within the British empire. To appease the Boers the British agreed that only whites, with few propertied Africans would vote.Eventually there was a war that the British won. The British used concentration camps
10 D. Effects of Imperialism By 1914 all the great powers of Europe had part of Africa except Liberia and Ethiopia1. Colonial Rule in AfricaRuled with the least effort and expense possible. Used indirect rule as much as possible. One problem with this rule was it kept the old African elite in power. So it sowed the seeds for class and tribal tensions.The French tried direct rule in most of their land. Governor general put in charge. The ideal was to assimilate African subjects into French culture rather than preserve native traditions.Liberia and Ethiopia had were planned to be used by the United States as a place to send freed slaves. This had been supported by Abe Lincoln.French even allowed some Africans to play a role in the government.
11 D. Effects of Imperialism 2. Rise of African NationalismNew class of leaders emerged by the beginning of 20th century. They admired western culture and sometimes disliked the ways of their own countries. Were eager to introduce western ideas and institutions into their own societies. Were few democratic institutions. Middle class Africans did not suffer as much as other classes. Europeans expressed their superiority over Africans in other ways. Segregated clubs, schools and churches were set up as more European officials brought families.
12 D. Effects of Imperialism The educated Africans were willing to admit the superiority of many aspects of Western society, Yet they did want to be independent. So was a mixture of hopes and resentment out of which emerged the first stirrings of modern nationalism in Africa.
13 21-2 Review “life-line to India” Suez Canal By 1914 the only independent states in Africa were what?Liberia and EthiopiaIncorporate a country within another state?AnnexIn the late 19th century, the real driving force behind colonization of Central Africa was who?Leopold II of Belgium
14 21-2 ReviewAfter opening the Suez Canal in 1869, Britain took an active interest in what country?EgyptMedical missionary and explorer in AfricaDavid LivingstonAfter its defeat in Ethiopia in 1896, Italy seized what?TripoliDutch settlers in South AfricaAfrikaners19th century Egyptian rulerMuhammad Ali
15 21-2 ReviewBritain, Germany, and France all had colonies where by 1900?West Africa