2 What impact did King Leopold II have on the Congo region of Africa? The people in the Belgian Free State were exploited and forced into hard labor as Leopold exploited the land and stole its resources.
3 which two countries dominated colonial holdings in Africa Britain and France
4 What were some humanitarian goals of Europeans in Africa Humanitarian goals include:Spread ChristianityEducate nativesInfrastructureMedicineSocial Justice / revise legal systems
5 How did European interaction with Africa changed under new imperialism Africa and its people were exploited by Europeans for natural resources (Gold, Silver, Ivory, Diamonds, Rubber) and forced to accept Western culture and ideas.
6 The idea that Westerns had a duty to bring their civilization to inferior races is an example of: Social Darwinism
7 According to the government, what was apartheid supposed to do? Allow each race to develop without the influence of others.
8 Who was Nelson MandelaNelson Mandela was elected South Africa’s first freely elected black president. He became a symbol for freedom and equality after being imprisoned for almost 30 years for crimes against the government under Apartheid.
9 The ethnic conflict in Rwanda was between The Hutus and the Tutsis
10 The Industrial Revolution contributed to imperialism because: European countries needed new markets to sell their finished products. Additionally, they sought access to cheap natural resources / raw materials to use in the manufacturing process.
11 List 3 motives for Imperialism 1. Access to Natural Resources 2. Social Darwinism 3. Expanded Markets 4. Nationalism 5. Business Opportunities 6. Outlet for Europe’s Population 7. Spread of Christianity 8. Spread of Western Civilization 9. Fueling Bases
12 Define ImperialismThe social, economic and political domination of one country over another
13 Define protectorateLocal rulers remain in power but must take “advice” from a European nation
14 What was the Berlin Conference? A meeting of European powers to establish rules for claiming land in Africa in order to avoid war.No Africans were invited to participate.
15 Define sphere of influence When a country has exclusive trading rights within a foreign nation
16 Define colonyTaking direct control of foreign territory and incorporating into the empire.
17 Why were Europeans able to conquer Nonwestern regions of the world? 1. Powerful Armies and Navies 2. Advanced Medical Knowledge3. Growing strength of Europe/ Decline of Older Civilizations4. Superior Technology5. Strong Economies6. Well Organized Governments
18 Why did Britain want control of the Suez Canal? The Suez Canal acted as an important waterway for trade by creating a “short-cut” between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea
20 Foreign interest in Persia increased after the discovery of? Oil
21 Why did Europeans want to control the Middle East before WWI? It allowed them to control trade routes to India
22 What internal force was important in weakening the Ottoman Empire thus allowing Europeans to grab land?Nationalism
23 What type of government did the British set up in India? A colonial viceroy known as the “British Raj”
24 What event led to the establishment of the British Raj? The Sepoy Rebellion
25 Why did the Sepoys rebel? The British East India company made several unpopular moves including requiring Sepoys to serve worldwide and changing the type of cartridge used in guns.This new cartridge required the user to bite off the tip which was greased in cow and pig fat, both animals with great religious significance to Muslims and Hindus (the majority of Sepoys).
26 How did most British view Indians and their culture? Most British did not understand Indian culture so they dismissed it as inferior.
27 What was a SepoyAn Indian soldier serving under British orders.
28 What product did the British begin selling to the Chinese to increase their balance of trade. Opium
29 How did the Chinese felt about Western powers? The Chinese hated foreigners and wanted them out of the country
30 The overall goal of the Boxer Rebellion was To drive out foreigners from the country.
31 Define indemnity Payment for losses in war The Chinese were forced to pay this as a result of their loss in the Opium War.
32 Define extraterritoriality Right to live under your home country’s laws, not the host country’s lawsThe British claimed this right after defeating the Chinese in the Opium War.
33 Why did China enjoy a trade surplus when it first began trading with Europe? China would only accept payment in the form of gold and silver because they believe European goods to be inferior.
34 What was the Opium WarA war between Britain and China that began when the British refused to stop selling opium to the Chinese.
35 During the Age of Imperialism, Western powers carved China into _____ ___ _______, giving them exclusive economic control over different parts of China.
36 During the Age of Imperialism, Western powers carved China into Spheres of Influence, giving them exclusive economic control over different parts of China.