2ImperialismDefinition: System of building foreign empires for military and trade advantagesColonizer- EuropeansColonized- Africans, Middle Easterners, Asians, and Americans
3Why explore? Gold- to gain wealth Glory- to become famous God- to spread Christianity
4Trade Trade and trade routes became very important. Controlling markets was extremely competitive since it could be very profitable.Two examples:Portugal- Prince Henry the NavigatorSpain- Christopher Columbus
5Portugal- Prince Henry the Navigator Portugal wanted an easier trade route to Asia.Under his guidance, Portuguese sailors explored the west coast of Africa and eventually developed new trade routes by sailing south around the continent of Africa to Asia.He also set up a navigation school.
6Spain- Christopher Columbus Sailing for Spain in 1492, he tried to find a different trade route to Asia.Instead of sailing south around the coast of Africa, Columbus attempted to sail west, across the Atlantic Ocean.Columbus’s voyage took him to the Americas, continents unknown in Europe at the time.
8Africa before the Europeans stepped in… Multiple religions/languagesVariety of governmental systems establishedTrading system with Europeans and Muslims
9Europeans step in…TECHNOLOGY allowed the Europeans to go deeper into Africa.EXPLORERS went into Africa first—faced many hardships…They were followed by MISSIONARIES
10The “Scramble” for Africa Belgium started to explore and make trade agreements with African leaders.This set off a SCRAMBLE by other European nations.Before long, Britain, France, and Germany were scrambling to make claims in the region.
11Berlin Conference1884: European countries met to discuss how to divide Africa. (No Africans were invited to attend)Results:Belgium took the CongoAny European power who wanted to claim a part of Africa had to set up a government office there first.Impact:Within 25 ( ) years almost every part of Africa was under European control.They redrew the map of Africa with little regard for traditional patterns of settlement or ethnic boundaries
13AsiaMany Asian territories saw a change from Europe as trading partner to Europe as conqueror.Great Britain took control of India and Australia and fought over control of Burma, Laos, Siam, and Cambodia.France controlled lands in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam.
15Impacts of Imperialism During the 19th century, factories in Europe required raw materials to manufacture finished products.The Europeans looked for new sources of raw materials and markets for their goods.Gold, diamonds, and oil were some of the resources the Europeans wanted. Asia and Africa had those resources.Trade with their colonies around the world brought European nations great wealth and power.Sadly, the Europeans often destroyed the local cultures in the lands they claimed.
20The EAST INDIA COMPANY has been around since 1600s The company’s main goal in India was to make MONEYLeading officials often get very richThe British worked at ending the caste system
21ChinaPrior to 1800s:STRICT LIMITS on foreign tradersChina enjoyed a trade surplus while European countries had a trade deficitBritish began making a profit by selling OPIUM made in India for Chinese tea.Many Chinese people became addicted to the drug, which disrupted the Chinese economy.The Chinese tried to stop the sale of opiumThe Chinese fought back in the OPIUM WAR and the BOXER REBELLION.
22Australia Why did the British colonize Australia? Australia was a dumping ground for rebels, poachers, and murderers… a prisoners’ islandWith the loss of Maryland and Georgia in the American war for independence, Britain was forced to find another place of exile for its unwanted convicts.How did the large number of prisoners/settlers impact the Aboriginal people?White settlement caused a rapid and severe decline in the indigenous population
23Territories of European/US Colonial Powers in 1900 Region ControlledAustraliaAfricaAsiaAmericasPercentages100%90.4%56.5%27.25
24Impacts of Imperialism Competition and fierce rivalries developed between European powers over colonial territories and they built up strong armies and navies to protect their interestsThe industrial Revolution created a great demand for cheap raw materials and profitable markets to sell their goods.This thirst prompted European powers to expand into Africa, Asia, and the Middle East so that by the late 19th century most of the world had been divided by the Europeans into colonial powers.Between 1875 and 1895, and handful of European states seized over 25 percent of the world’s population.