Presentation on theme: "Ancient Rome The Organizers. Roman Art Philosophy: Efficiency, organization, practicality Art Forms: Mosaics, realistic wall paintings, idealized civic."— Presentation transcript:
Roman Art Philosophy: Efficiency, organization, practicality Art Forms: Mosaics, realistic wall paintings, idealized civic sculpture Most Famous Building: Pantheon Signature City: Rome Role Model: Greece Major Contributions: Law, engineering, and cement
The Legacy of Rome Roman architects used Greek forms but developed new construction techniques: Arch: to span greater distances than the Greek post and lintel Other Roman contributions: Basilica: an oblong building with semicircular apses on either end-used as a meeting place Barrel Vault: deep arch forming a half cylindrical roof Groin Vault: two intersecting barrel vaults at the same height that form a right angle. (See page 125)
Is it Greek or Roman? The Pantheon, A.D. 118-125, Rome. The domed rotunda of the Pantheon illustrates the Roman architect’s ability to enclose space. See page 135 text
Is it Greek or Roman? Parthenon, 448-432 B.C., Athens The Parthnon’s triangular pediment and columned portico show classic Greek temple format.
Is it Greek or is it Roman? Greek & Roman art & architecture are often confused. Greeks Temples to glorify gods Walls made of stone blocks Rectangular, straight lines Post and lintel support Idealized god sculpture Stylized figures floating in space in Paintings Mythology subject of art Roman Civic buildings to honor Empire (baths, forums) Walls of concrete with ornamental facings Circles, curved lines Rounded arch & vault support Realistic human beings sculpture Realistic images with perspective Civic leaders; military triumphs
Roman Architecture: Vaulting Ambition Besides Roman Law, another one of Rome’s most valuable contributions was: Architecture and Engineering Roman Builders developed: the arch, the vault, the dome and pioneered the creative use of concrete Their engineering skills allowed immense covering of interior space without inner support.
Rome’s Wealth Rome became incredibly rich due to their conquerings. Nero’s palace “The Golden House” Most opulent residence in antiquity Featured Banquet room with perfume sprinklers Domed Revolving Roof for guests to view constellations. Nero’s Palace
The more extravagant the better! Baths of Caracalla Where capacity crowds of 1600 bathed in pools of varying water temperatures. Romans Loved Baths!
Roman Sculpture: Politics as Usual Romans copied the Greeks until gradually they developed their own style. Generally, Roman sculpture was more literal. Wax death masks of ancestors adorned their homes. They were realistic and completely factual & had a large influence on sculptors.
An Exception to Rule... Was the assembly line production of god-like busts of emperors, politicians and military leaders that established a political presence throughout Europe. During Rome’s decline, portrait busts reverted to brutal honesty... See pages 143, 144, 145 for other examples Marcus Aurelius, A.D. 165, Rome. He was a Stoic philosopher who detested war. Sculptor reflects his gentleness.
Narrative Relief Another principle form of Roman sculpture. Column of Trajan, 650 ft. long relief, commemorating mass slaughter in 150+scenes. Panels of sculpted figures decorated triumphal arches depicting victorious armies. The Column of Trajan, 106-113 AD
The Colosseum Still one of the world’s largest buildings in terms of sheer mass & the inspiration for present day stadiums. Used for large scale public entertainment. Opening act: Naval Battle Scene (300 cast) Other Acts: Starving Lions, Man vs. Bear, etc.
Pompeii: A City Turned to Carbon A luxury resort community, Pop.25000 - 79AD Destroyed by Mt. Vesuvius eruption Was covered & forgotten for 1700 years... Preserved!
Pompeii Findings Scientific excavation disclosed whole villas in which every wall was painted with realistic still lifes and landscapes and make believe windows Style: immitations of colored marble to trompe l’oeil Mastery of tricks of perspective, light and shadow… and mosaics.
Mural Paintings On or Near Site View of the Frescos at the Villa of the Mysteries near Pompeii, 65-50 BC (pg.146 text) Mural Paintings: Executed in Buon Fresco but with small amounts of wax added to increase shine. Created illusions of framed art Narrative Order Scenes