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Roman Art & Architecture

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Presentation on theme: "Roman Art & Architecture"— Presentation transcript:

1 Roman Art & Architecture
Like Greece, Rome had a lasting influence on the Western tradition of art. Roman art includes the visual arts produced in Ancient Rome, and in the territories of the Roman empire. Major forms of Roman art are architecture, painting, sculpture and mosaic work. Ancient Roman buildings and other structures combine function and beauty. They demonstrate the Romans’ genius and skill in engineering and architecture. Roman’s became the heirs of Greek Art.

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Even though a large majority of Roman Art was copied from the Greeks, they still made their own contributions of their own, from their differences in sculptures to their masterful feet's in architecture. The first of many topics to be discussed in Roman Art would be their influences on sculpture. “A desire for lifelike portraits can be traced back to the earliest period in Rome’s history. Many of the sculptures who worked in Rome came from Greece. These artists worked in the Greek tradition BUT adapted that tradition to meet Roman demand.” It is very crucial in knowing the difference between Roman and Greek Sculptures.

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The Differences between Roman Sculpture and Greek Sculpture: Roman Sculpture Greek Sculpture Wanted theirs to look more realistic ) Preferred idealistic portraits Were meant to use as private needs ) Were meant for public monuments. Looked natural and lifelike ) Were always full body sculptures. Some were full body , but most were ) Was incomplete if NOT the full body. Just the bust or the head. 5) Marble and other types of stone were used. 6) Used facial features/expressions in their sculptures. (wrinkles, imperfections, etc.)

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Roman Murals Wealthy Roman families lived in luxurious homes with baths, courtyards, etc. BUT they did NOT like to hang paintings on the wall so instead they had murals painted. Murals are large pictures painted directly on the wall. All the murals were all Frescos: which is when water based pigments are applied directly to moist/wet plaster. Many of the murals included: Portraits, mythological themes, landscapes, cityscapes and still lifes. Hellenistic artists influenced many of these works. Pompeii is a great example of the discovery of many of these mural paintings.

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Roman Architecture In this chapter, Roman Architecture is going to be broken down into 7 different structures: 1) Temples 2) Aqueducts 3) Baths 4) Coliseums- Sporting event buildings 5) Pantheon- Public Structures 6) Basilicas 7) Triumphal Arches

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TEMPLES Temples were similar looking in structure to the Greeks, BUT Romans used many of their columns as decorative reasons along with structural support. It’s important to take notice to #1 in that the Romans were the ones who discovered how to make CONCRETE: a) Is used in almost all Roman structures. b) It’s made from lime mortar, volcanic sand, small stones and water. c) They learned how to mold it-Ex. Brick Mold d) Because of this discovery, the Romans were able to created buildings/structures on larger scales. e) It was durable and very cheap to make.

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ROMAN AQUEDUCTS These were a system that carried water from mountain streams into cities using gravitational flow. For these structures the Roman’s used the “arch method” for support and efficiency NOT for beauty. They were constructed of granite blocks without mortar or cement. They ranged from miles long. 5) One of the most famous aqueducts created by the Romans is the: Pont du Gard which is located in Nimes, France.

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BATHS These were vast enclosed structures that contained libraries, lecture rooms, gymnasiums, shops, restaurants and pleasant walkways. They were also known fro being social and cultural centers. They were places for hygiene. They can be compared to the modern day shopping mall.

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BATHS Many baths had certain features in common. They ALL contained a series of pools ranging in different temperatures: a) Calidarium: Hot water pool (This was entered 1st) b) Tepidarium: Warm water pool. c) Frigidarium: Cool water pool (The Last room entered). 6) ALL the pools were maintained by furnaces that were located beneath the building and were controlled by workers and slaves. 7) The most famous bath(s) were built by Emperor Carocalla. It stretched out over 30 acres, a bathhouse that measured 750 ft. by 380 ft. and had a huge center hall that contained Groin Vaults: formed in the ceiling when 2 barrel vaults meet at right angles. 8) The introduction to Groin Vaults allowed for bigger rooms and the placement of windows.

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Colosseum This is the building where chariot races and other different athletic events took place. This structure covers 6 acres: it’s a complete oval, measuring 615 ft. by 510 ft. The arches are the openings of barrel vaults that ring the amphitheater at each level. Beneath the floor was where the cages for animals were, barracks for gladiators and the rooms to house needed to raise/lower the stage for sets, etc. Gladiator battles became big in the 3rd century . Up to 5,000 gladiators fought and 11,000 animals killed in a single day.

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Colosseum This structure is broken down into many different levels and purposes: A) There were 80 arched openings at the ground level that enabled spectators to enter and leave the stadium: 1) 76 of those arches were used for the public 2 ) 1 arch was reserved for the emperor 3) 1 arch was used by the priestesses 4) 1 was the “Door of Life” which was used by the victorious gladiator. 5) 1 was the “Door of Death” which was where the bodies of the slain gladiators were carried through. This structure had many tiers: 1) The 1st tier was reserved for the emperor and state officials. 2) The 2nd tier was for the upper class. 3) The upper tiers were for the general public.

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Pantheon One of the greatest marvels of Roman Architecture. It was designed as a temple dedicated to all the Roman gods. Even though the outside looks simple (a low, gently curving dome resting on a cylinder) the outside has a much bigger impact. The DOME is made of brick and concrete, it rises 144 ft above the ground and the diameter is 144 ft as well, the opening is 30 ft across. There are NO windows because of all the needed support, but the dome provided all the lighting/illumination. A special drainage system and a raised floor was the way they dealt with the rain.

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Pantheon *The inside of the Pantheon had THREE zones: Zone One: This zone was the lowest zone, which has 7 niches (are recesses in the wall) * Each niche contains statues or altars dedicated to the Roman gods of the heavens- Sol (sun), Luna (moon) and gods of the 5 known planets. Zone Two: Contains the 12 signs of the zodiac. Zone Three: (Final Zone) was the actual dome which represents the heavens. The surface of the dome is covered in coffers (indented panels), these coffers help reduce the weight of the dome.

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Basilicas It’s a functional building made to hold large numbers of people. It was originally designed as a court of law and public meeting hall and it was all part of a forum or public square. Almost all the Basilicas contained: a) Nave: a long, wide center aisle. b) Apse: a semicircular area at the end of the nave. 4. Because of the particular roof design they were able to install windows. 5. Majority of the time during this period, wooden roofs were used.

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Triumphal Arches These are heavily decorated arches. After an important win in a battle or victory, Generals and their troops would walk under the arch, while thousands cheered them on. There are 3 arches: a) 1 large arch in which the general passes through. b) The other 2 arches are for the troops to pass through. The Arch of Constantine in Rome, Italy is one of the most famous arches from this time period. ***The 5th Century was the fall of the Roman Empire.

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