3What are the Three Orders of Greek Architecture What are the Three Orders of Greek Architecture? Columns in Ancient Greece are of three orders: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.Doric style columns are plain, sturdy, and heavy with simple capitals and no base.Ionic columns are more slender than Doric columns. The capital of the column contains scroll-like curls or rams' horns.The capital of a Corinthian column has acanthus leaves and looks detailed.
4Architecture Terminology Frieze – a decorative horizontal band that runs below the pediment. It would have relief sculptures in it.Pediment – the triangular section on the façade of a temple. It would hold sculptures that would depict gods or tales from mythology.Column – the post that held a capital at the top of it.Post and Lintel – a method of construction in which a crossbeam is placed across the opening between two uprights.
5Roman Architectural Achievements Rome’s greatest contributions were in the field of architectureAccomplishments:1. Concrete-a mixture of powdered minerals and small stones. Concrete was used to create buildings with great domes and ceilings.The Pantheon is the largest domed building from ancient times still standing.2. The round arch. This curved arrangement of stones over an open space opened up new building opportunities.Roman Architectural Achievements
6Roman Architectural Achievements 3. Aqueduct-a network of channels meant to carry water to a city. The aqueduct was built to carry water over a valley 600 yards wide and is 160 feet high.4. The triumphal arch. this was a monument built to celebrate great army victories. The largest ever built was the Arch of Constantine. The rounded arch as used here by the Romans was purely decorative.Influenced by the Greeks, the Romans built larger arched theaters on ground level with high back walls.Some ancient Roman theaters were even “air-conditioned” by a system of moving air and streams of water.
7ColiseumThe Coliseum is the best known of Roman buildings. It combines the use of arches, columns, and concrete to create the structure. It is a new type of building called an amphitheatre in which two ‘theaters”, facing each other, were combined to form an arena surrounding an oval space.It was located in the center of Rome and seated 50,000 spectators.The circular sweep of the building is countered by the vertical lines of engaged columns flanking each arch. Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns mark each level.It housed the gladiatorial games, including the martyrdom of Christians by turning lions loose on them as a gruesome “spectator sport”.
8Middle Ages 475 A.D. to 1500 Divided into three periods - Dark Ages - Romanesque- Gothic
9Romanesque ChurchRomanesque churches were made of thick walls and lacked windows.Space inside church was dark and somber.First churches were built as early as 400 A.D. in Europe.
10Gothic Cathedrals Cathedral – the principle church with a bishop Difference between Romanesque and Gothic is:-that Romanesque was short and dark.- that Gothic had height and light.
11Features of Gothic Cathedral Flying Buttress – is a brace or support placed on the outside of a building.Allowed for cathedral walls to have large areas of stained glass and height.
12Continued features of Gothic Cathedral Pointed Arch – a curved arrangement of stones that meets at a central point on top.Used above doors and windows.
13Stained GlassStained Glass – an artist arrangement of colored glass pieces held in place with lead strips.Tracery – the framework that held the stain glass together.The stained glass would assist in telling stories from the Bible.
14Continued features of Gothic Cathedral Rose Windows - a circular stained glass window usually constructed above the entry to a church.
15Continued features of Gothic Cathedral Vaults – used to support weight of ceilings.
16Gothic Cathedral Naïve Transept Apse Flying Buttress Rose Window Clerestory
17The typical gothic church floor plan was in the form of a cross The typical gothic church floor plan was in the form of a cross. The arm of the cross is called the transept. The center aisle of the church is called the nave.Cutaway view of Notre Dame, Chartres
18Gothic Floor Plan Naïve – Vertical Aisle Transept – Horizontal Aisle Apse – Head of floor plan towards altar.