Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9.2. Roman emperors were constantly building and rebuilding their cities of their empire. As long as there was money to do so, the emperors."— Presentation transcript:
Roman emperors were constantly building and rebuilding their cities of their empire. As long as there was money to do so, the emperors had baths, circuses, forums, and amphitheaters for the enjoyment of the people. By providing these enjoyments the emperor hoped to maintain popularity.
Baths were among the most popular public buildings. Baths = vast enclosed structures that contained libraries, lecture rooms, gymnasiums, shops, restaurants, and pleasant walkways. These features made the baths a social and cultural center as well as a place for hygiene. In many ways they are like the shopping center of today.
Most famous bath built by the emperor Caracalla. Sprawled over 30 acres and included a bath house that measured 750 ft x 380 ft. A huge central hall was spanned with concrete groin vaults.
Groin Vault = formed when two barrel vaults meets at right angle Allowed builders to cover a very large area. Allowed the placement of windows which barrel vaults could not allow.
Although Romans enjoyed many kinds of sports but chariot races were easily the favorite. As many as 150,000 people would attend chariot races held at the Circus Maximus. Circus Maximus, Rome
Almost as popular as the chariot races were the armed contests. Covers over 6 acres It lays in ruins because past rulers carried off stone from the building to construct new buildings. The three different styles of columns can be seen on each of the levels.
80 arched opening allow visitors to enter and exit the Colosseum so efficiently that it could be emptied in minutes. Once could accommodate 50,000 people Beneath the floors of the Colosseum were compartments and passages serving as a place to cage the animals, barracks for gladiators, rooms to house machinery used to raise and lower the stage sets and performers.
Romans revived the Etruscan spectacle in which slaves were pitted against each other in the battle to the death in front of hundreds of spectators. Not all Romans approved of the battles but they were so popular that they feared to say anything. As many as 5,000 pairs of gladiators would fight and up to 11,000 animals would be killed each day.
Roman emperors had great community pride, and in addition to providing buildings of leisure, they built public squares and civic centers. Magnificent structures were built including meeting halls, temples to the Roman gods, markets, and basilicas. Architects and engineers combined their talents to erect huge buildings that were not only structurally sound but also beautifully designed.
Designed as a temple dedicated to all of the Roman gods but later converted to a Christian church. The building has been in continuous use since it would built. Made of brick and concrete the dome rises 144 feet above the floor. The diameter is also 144 feet.
The inside is divided in to three sections. First – the lowest has 7 niches that contain statues or alters dedicated to the Roman gods of the heavens. Niche = recesses in the wall Second – contains the 12 signs of the Zodiac Third –the dome represents the heavens and is covered in coffers which supply decoration but also lessen the weight of the dome. Coffers = indented panels
The interior is well illuminated although there are no windows Walls up to 20 feet thick are needed to support the massive dome. A 30 ft opening allows sunlight to light the interior of the dome. To solve the problem that rain posed, the floor is slightly raised allowing water to run down a drain in the middle of the floor.
Basilica = a spacious, rectangular building made to hold a large number of people, built by the Romans Combined many of the architectural advances that the Romans had made. They served as models for generations of Christian church builders. St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome Italy
Rows of slender columns divide the space in to what is called the nave. Nave = a long, wide center aisle The roof over the center isle is usually taller to allow for the addition of windows to let in light
Romans loved celebrations and often marked military victories by building a monument to the victory triumphal arch = a heavily decorated arch The Arch of Constantine is the most famous of these arches. The important generals and officers would walk through the middle arch while foot solders would march through the smaller side arches.
Baths = vast enclosed structures that contained libraries, lecture rooms, gymnasiums, shops, restaurants, and pleasant walkways Groin Vault = formed when two barrel vaults meets at right angles Nave = a long, wide center aisle Triumphal Arch = a heavily decorated arch
The Baths of Caracalla The Pantheon (Interior and Exterior) Floor Plan of a Basilica The Colleseum The Circus Maximus The Arch of Constantine