4From Tudor to Stuart (1603) Queen Elizabeth dies Succeeded by James VI of Scotland (becomes James I of England, Scotland, and Ireland)
5England, Scotland, and Ireland History of ConflictReligious differences:- England – Anglican(large Catholic minority)- Scotland – Calvinist- Ireland – Catholic(large Protestantminority in the North)
6The Gunpowder Plot (1605)Failed attempt to kill King James I (and blow up the House of Lords)Major conspirators: Provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby and Guy Hawkes (convicted and hanged)Aftermath:- Immediate spike in anti-Catholic legislation- Loyal Catholics / Leniencylater during the rest ofKing James’ reign
7Foreign Entanglements: James I – wanted to stay out, but dragged into 30 years’ warCharles I – involved at the beg. of his reign, but withdrew in 1630 (sympathized with the Protestant side)Frederick V and Elizabeth Stuart
8Charles I: His Rule and Policies Married Princess Henrietta Maria of France (sister of Louis XIII)Emphasis on “traditional” Anglicanism (Archbishop Laud)and suspected favoritism toward Catholics – angers Puritans1629 – dismisses ParliamentUnpopular taxation policies (ex: Ship money)Scottish rebellion (The Presbyterian Church) forces Charles to call the Parliament in 16401641 – Rebellion in Ireland against “foreign” landowners
9On the BrinkThe “Long” Parliament pushes back (no ship money tax, the Triennial Act)Puritan MPs want moreCharles’ attempt to arrest five radical MPs fails/backfiresEngland divides into two camps!
11Charles I’s Main Rivals The New Model Army (Roundheads / independents) – distinguished general – Oliver CromwellScottish army (invaded England from the north)Charles I surrenders to the Scots, but they gave (“sold”) him up to the Parliament
12The Second Civil War (1647-1649) Rivalry develops between the Puritans and the Presbyterians (English and Scottish)Charles I stirs up invasion from ScotlandCromwell purges the ParliamentCharles I – condemned by the “Rump” Parliament and executed (Jan.30th, 1649)
13The British Commonwealth (1649-1659) (Brief Republican Period) Uprisings in Ireland and Scotland“Radicals” at homeCromwell dissolves the Parliament in 1653The Army and the Lord Protector (Cromwell)Constitutionalism by force?
14Charles II and the Restoration of the (Stuart) Monarchy Charles II and The Parliament were restoredCharles II – sympathetic to Catholicism?Distrust between the king and the Parliament (AGAIN!)James II – Catholic! – next in line!
15Brief Reign of James II (r.1685-1688) James II – openly CatholicIgnores the Test Act1688 – James’ son isborn (succession!)English MPs / Noblesinvite William ofOrange to invadeEngland (married toJames’ daughter Mary)William and Mary
16The Glorious Revolution (1688-1689) James II flees to FranceThe Revolution Settlement: William and Mary – new rulers of England by accepting the English Bill of RightsCONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY! (not by divine right!!!)The Toleration Act (1689) still excluded Catholics
17The English Bill of Rights (1689) 1. That the pretended power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by regal authority, without consent of parliament is illegal.2. That the pretended power of dispensing with the laws, or the execution of law by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal.3. That the commission for erecting the late court of commissioners for ecclesiastical causes, and all other commissions and courts of like nature, are illegal and pernicious.4. That levying money for or to the use of the crown by pretense of prerogative, without grant of parliament, for longer time or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal.5. That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal.6. That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of parliament, is against law.
18The English Bill of Rights (cont.) 7. That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defense suitable to their conditions, and as allowed by law.8. That election of members of parliament ought to be free.9. That the freedom of speech, and debates or proceedings in parliament, ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of parliament.10. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.11. That jurors ought to be duly impaneled and returned, and jurors which pass upon men in trials for high treason ought to be freeholders.12. That all grants and promises of fines and forfeitures of particular persons before conviction are illegal and void.13. And that for redress of all grievances, and for the amending, strengthening, and preserving of the laws, parliament ought to be held frequently.