A bloodless revolution that forced the king to rule in accordance with laws set out by Parliament
Background Most European nations were governed by absolute rulers who believed their power came from God
The Tudors (1485 – 1603) Under the reign of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, England realized having the support of Parliament was important Especially needed support in religious policies Henry VIII asked the Pope to grant a divorce, but he refused Henry VIII declared himself the head of the church of England & parliament agreed because they would be given the opportunity to buy church land that was seized Officially established the Anglican Church of England
King Henry the Eighth, to six wives he was wedded. One died, one survived, two divorced, two beheaded.
The Stuarts (1603 – 1714) Believed in the divine right of kings Parliament passed the Petition of Rights (1628) which said the king could not impose a tax without their consent Charles I accepted at first, but realized it stripped his power. In retaliation he locked the doors on Parliament Eleven Years’ Tyranny
The Stuarts and Civil War Tensions rose between supporters of the king and supporters of Parliament Oliver Cromwell was a military genius & convinced many that Charles I couldn’t be trusted and did away with anyone who disagreed Charles I was executed Parliament abolished the monarchy & was declared a Republic Cromwell thought it difficult to work with Parliament & set up a military dictatorship His son was unable to maintain this
The Restoration of Parliament Parliament restored the Stuarts with Charles II who agreed to respect their powers even though he favored the Catholic church Parliament tried to pass the Exclusion Bill Bar James II if he professed Catholicism Charles II dismissed Parliament because of this James II, a devout Catholic, succeeded him
England decided they no longer wanted to be ruled by a king, especially a Catholic one English nobles asked Dutch leader, William of Orange, who was married to James’ protestant daughter to take the throne William and Mary raised an army James II fled to France With little opposition and almost no bloodshed
The throne for the Bill of Rights Created a system of government based on laws and freely elected parliament Parliament could: make laws, tax, consent to standing armies Citizens could: bear arms, jury trials, free from excessive bail, fines & cruel punishments
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