The Tudors Rule England 1485-1603 Tudor monarchs Henry VIII & Elizabeth Control parliament tactfully Recognize & respect its role in government 1603 – Elizabeth dies, leaving throne to Stuart cousin James VI of Scotland (James I of England)
Stuart King James I Rules 1603-1625 James I becomes King (son of Mary Queen of Scots) Mary was executed by Elizabeth, leaving James as the closest relative to assume throne immediately clashes with parliament Scolds parliament for usurping royal power Parliament responds with a declaration of its own rights In the last parliament of his reign, King James gives in to Parliament
Stuart King Charles I Rules 1625-1649 Charles dissolves Parliament when it tries to expand powers to deal with an economic crisis Parliament act of 1628 produces the Petition of Right (No taxes w/o consent, No jailing w/o legal justification) Later Parliament clashes with Charles over what they think are violations of the document Charles dissolves Parliament again
The Long Parliament Meets 1640-1653 Faced with economic problems and an invasion by Scotland, Charles is forced to call Parliament The Long Parliament (as it is known) works to steadily expand its powers Eventually Charles strikes back Motto: “Give Caesar his due”
The English Civil War Rages War breaks out between Parliament’s Roundheads and Charles I’s Cavaliers The parliamentary forces, led by Oliver Cromwell, eventually win 1649: Charles I is executed
Exit Ticket Was the English Civil War successful? WHY or WHY NOT? EXPLAIN!
“Why Did Parliament Win the Civil War?” Read the background information and answer corresponding questions
The English Commonwealth Parliament abolishes the monarchy and House of Lords Parliament rules as a commonwealth Cromwell is leader Problems plague the nation – Cromwell is a military leader Commonwealth falls apart upon Cromwell’s death in 1658 Groups who favor a monarchy gain power
The Monarchy is Restored 1660-1685 Charles II works with Parliament to repair the shattered nation Eventually clashes with Parliament when he works to restore Catholicism 1678: Charles dissolves Parliament and builds the monarchy’s power His successor, James II, continues to push for Catholic power and incites a backlash PRODUCES MALE HEIR **CATHOLIC**
The Glorious Revolution William and Mary (James II’s Protestant daughter) are asked to become England’s monarchs 1688 King James II, wife & child flee to France Assures Parliament’s power William & Mary had to agree to very limited powers under Parliament’s domination 1689: Signed the English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights Ensured the superiority of Parliament over the monarchy Required the monarch to summon Parliament regularly and gave the House of Commons the “power of the purse” – control over spending King or Queen could no longer interfere with parliamentary debates or suspend laws Barred any Roman Catholic from sitting on the throne
The English Bill of Rights Also restated the traditional rights of English citizens Trial by jury Abolished excessive fines Cruel and unjust punishment Affirmed the principle of habeas corpus No person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
Toleration Act 1689 Granted limited religious freedom to Puritans, Quakers, and other dissenters BUT only members of the Church of England could hold public office Catholics were not allowed any religious freedoms timeline timeline
English Bill of Rights Absolute Monarch Absolute Monarch = EXECUTED by Cromwell Popular Ruler dies 1685 Abdicates in 1688
Wrap Up Why was the “Age of Absolutism” 1550-1800 such a chaotic time in European history? Consider: Elizabeth, Philip II, Louis XIV, English Civil War, Glorious Revolution, and Constitutional Government
Exit Ticket: Wednesday 11/28/12 Why was Thomas Hobbes such a strong supporter of an Absolute Ruler? What was the Petition of Right? What was the result of the English Civil War? What was the Commonwealth? Who led the Commonwealth?