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England Divided Parliament and the Monarchy Fight for Power 1485-1688.

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Presentation on theme: "England Divided Parliament and the Monarchy Fight for Power 1485-1688."— Presentation transcript:

1 England Divided Parliament and the Monarchy Fight for Power 1485-1688

2 Objective  SWBAT understand how the English Civil War and the development of the commonwealth led to the Glorious Revolution

3 DO NOW: Tuesday 11/27/12  On the back of your notes, list the PROS and CONS of an absolute monarch such as Louis XIV of France.

4 English Bill of Rights Absolute Monarch Absolute Monarch = EXECUTED by Cromwell Popular Ruler dies 1685 Abdicates in 1688 Constitutional Government!

5 Map of The United Kingdom

6 The Tudors Rule England  1485-1603  Tudor monarchs  Henry VIII & Elizabeth  Control parliament tactfully  Recognize & respect its role in government  1603 – Elizabeth dies, leaving throne to Stuart cousin James VI of Scotland (James I of England)

7 Stuart King James I Rules  1603-1625  James I becomes King (son of Mary Queen of Scots)  Mary was executed by Elizabeth, leaving James as the closest relative to assume throne  immediately clashes with parliament  Scolds parliament for usurping royal power  Parliament responds with a declaration of its own rights  In the last parliament of his reign, King James gives in to Parliament

8 Stuart King Charles I Rules  1625-1649  Charles dissolves Parliament when it tries to expand powers to deal with an economic crisis  Parliament act of 1628 produces the Petition of Right (No taxes w/o consent, No jailing w/o legal justification)  Later Parliament clashes with Charles over what they think are violations of the document  Charles dissolves Parliament again

9 The Long Parliament Meets  1640-1653  Faced with economic problems and an invasion by Scotland, Charles is forced to call Parliament  The Long Parliament (as it is known) works to steadily expand its powers  Eventually Charles strikes back  Motto: “Give Caesar his due”

10 The English Civil War Rages  War breaks out between Parliament’s Roundheads and Charles I’s Cavaliers  The parliamentary forces, led by Oliver Cromwell, eventually win  1649: Charles I is executed

11 Exit Ticket Was the English Civil War successful? WHY or WHY NOT? EXPLAIN!

12 “Why Did Parliament Win the Civil War?”  Read the background information and answer corresponding questions

13 The English Commonwealth  Parliament abolishes the monarchy and House of Lords  Parliament rules as a commonwealth  Cromwell is leader  Problems plague the nation – Cromwell is a military leader  Commonwealth falls apart upon Cromwell’s death in 1658  Groups who favor a monarchy gain power

14 The Monarchy is Restored  1660-1685  Charles II works with Parliament to repair the shattered nation  Eventually clashes with Parliament when he works to restore Catholicism  1678: Charles dissolves Parliament and builds the monarchy’s power  His successor, James II, continues to push for Catholic power and incites a backlash  PRODUCES MALE HEIR **CATHOLIC**

15 The Glorious Revolution  William and Mary (James II’s Protestant daughter) are asked to become England’s monarchs  1688 King James II, wife & child flee to France  Assures Parliament’s power  William & Mary had to agree to very limited powers under Parliament’s domination  1689: Signed the English Bill of Rights

16 The English Bill of Rights  Ensured the superiority of Parliament over the monarchy  Required the monarch to summon Parliament regularly and gave the House of Commons the “power of the purse” – control over spending  King or Queen could no longer interfere with parliamentary debates or suspend laws  Barred any Roman Catholic from sitting on the throne

17 The English Bill of Rights  Also restated the traditional rights of English citizens  Trial by jury  Abolished excessive fines  Cruel and unjust punishment  Affirmed the principle of habeas corpus  No person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime

18 Toleration Act 1689  Granted limited religious freedom to Puritans, Quakers, and other dissenters  BUT only members of the Church of England could hold public office  Catholics were not allowed any religious freedoms  timeline timeline

19 English Bill of Rights Absolute Monarch Absolute Monarch = EXECUTED by Cromwell Popular Ruler dies 1685 Abdicates in 1688

20 Wrap Up  Why was the “Age of Absolutism” 1550-1800 such a chaotic time in European history?  Consider: Elizabeth, Philip II, Louis XIV, English Civil War, Glorious Revolution, and Constitutional Government

21 Exit Ticket: Wednesday 11/28/12  Why was Thomas Hobbes such a strong supporter of an Absolute Ruler?  What was the Petition of Right?  What was the result of the English Civil War?  What was the Commonwealth? Who led the Commonwealth?

22 The English Bill of Rights  Primary Source

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