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England — — From Absolutism to Constitutionalism

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Presentation on theme: "England — — From Absolutism to Constitutionalism"— Presentation transcript:

1 England —1603-1689— From Absolutism to Constitutionalism
Civil War, Military Dictatorship, the Restoration, and the Glorious Revolution

2 Introduction and Background
Constitutionalism vs. Democracy Magna Charta 1215 Elizabeth I

3 The Signing of the Magna Charta by King John

4 Changes These will clash with actions of Stuart Kings
Political Changes Commons increased status; more articulate Wanted more power over expenditures “We could buy the House of Lords 3 times over” Social/Economic Changes Increased wealth of commoners Better educated Agricultural changes; investments and profit Religious Changes Dissatisfaction with Church of England—Puritans Protestant work ethic These will clash with actions of Stuart Kings

5 House of Commons 1834

6 English Parliament

7 Parliament and Big Ben (big deal)

8 James I (1603-1625) Scottish Cousin to Elizabeth I King of Scotland
“They can cheer my arse!” Lavish court spending; male lovers; weakened respect for monarchy Outlined his absolutist ideas in The Trew Law of Free Monarchy “There are no privileges and immunities which can stand against a divinely appointed king.” “No bishop, no king”—response to Puritans Supported William Laud

9 William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury


11 Propaganda for Charles I as Absolute Monarch


13 Charles I in the House of Commons

14 Charles I (1625-1649) William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury
Rituals and ceremonies; “Court of High Commission”; Book of Common Prayer Taxed without consent of Parliament Ruled without Parliament until Scottish revolt against bishoprics; Summoned Parliament to raise army Long Parliament Triennial Act Impeached Laud, abolished CHC Rejection of “Catholicizing” Refused to give Charles an army Recruited his own army against Parliament—resulted in English Civil War

15 Trial of Arch Bishop Laud

16 Execution of Archbishop Laud

17 Execution of Archbishop Laud, 1645

18 Bishop’s Wars (1639-1640) Precursor to the English Civil War
Charles’ attempts to impose Book of Common Prayer on Scotland Conflict between Scottish Presbyterians and English Anglicans English try to impose Bishops on Scotland

19 English Civil War (1642-1649) Kings Army—Nobility, gentry, mercenaries
Parliament’s Army—City militia, squires Cavaliers (Royalists, supporters of the King) vs. Roundheads (Cromwell and the Parliamentarians)


21 Prince Rupert, Cavalier
Puritan Roundhead


23 Cromwell’s Soldier Breaking into house of a Cavalier

24 The New Model Army, 1645

25 Oliver Cromwell’s Warrant for Charles I
...uphold in himself an unlimited and tyrannical power to rule…and to overthrow the rights and liberties of the people Oliver Cromwell’s Warrant for Charles I

26 Charles I taking leave of his children

27 Charles I being led to execution

28 Execution of Charles I, 1649

29 Execution of Charles I, 1649

30 Interregnum (1649-1660) Aka “Protectorate” Commonwealth declared
New Model Army controlled by Cromwell ran the government Cromwell declared “Lord Protector” Tore up Instrument of Government, Mercantilist policies Military districts Army generals force Cromwell’s son to resign

31 Interregnum ( ) Cromwell purged Parliament, dissolved courts; limited free speech Expelled members of Parliament that opposed trial of Charles I Remainder called “Rump Parliament” Rump parliament dissolved in 1653 when they appeared ready to dissolve the New Model Army Resummoned by Richard Cromwell in 1659


33 Oliver Cromwell dissolving Parliament, 1653

34 Oliver Cromwell dissolving Parliament, 1653

35 Charles II (1660-1685) In Holland during Interregnum; offered throne
Parliament, Church, and courts reinstated Test Act passed, not enforced “Determined not to set out in his travels again” Council of Five—CABAL created Secret agreement with Louis XIV to recatholicize England Before death, admitted to being a Catholic, passed throne to brother

36 Charles II entering London, 1660, people cheering

37 The Restoration of Charles II

38 Great London Fire, 1666

39 James II (1685-1688) Appointed Catholics, contradiction to Test Act
Declaration of Indulgence—religious freedom Male heir Widespread fear of Catholic dynasty

40 James II

41 Glorious Revolution (1689)
Protestant daughter of James II, Mary offered throne with husband, William Must agree to Bill of Rights, recognize Parliament’s supremacy No peacetime army Independent judges Catholics could not carry firearms English monarchy must be Protestant Est. principles of constitutionalism, sovereignty, and rule of law in England Not a democratic revolution

42 William and Mary

43 Bill of Rights being read to William and Mary previous to the offering of the Crown

44 The Bill of Rights

45 Whereas the late King James the Second, by the assistance of divers evil counsellors, judges and ministers employed by him, did endeavour to subvert and extirpate the Protestant religion and the laws and liberties of this kingdom; By issuing and causing to be executed a commission under the great seal for erecting a court called the Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes; By levying money for and to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative for other time and in other manner than the same was granted by Parliament; By raising and keeping a standing army within this kingdom in time of peace without consent of Parliament, and quartering soldiers contrary to law;

46 By causing several good subjects being Protestants to be disarmed at the same time when papists were both armed and employed contrary to law; By violating the freedom of election of members to serve in Parliament; By prosecutions in the Court of King's Bench for matters and causes cognizable only in Parliament, and by divers other arbitrary and illegal courses; And whereas of late years partial corrupt and unqualified persons have been returned and served on juries in trials, and particularly divers jurors in trials for high treason which were not freeholders; And excessive bail hath been required of persons committed in criminal cases to elude the benefit of the laws made for the liberty of the subjects; And excessive fines have been imposed; And illegal and cruel punishments inflicted; All which are utterly and directly contrary to the known laws and statutes and freedom of this realm;

47 That the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal; That the pretended power of dispensing with laws or the execution of laws by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal; That the commission for erecting the late Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes, and all other commissions and courts of like nature, are illegal and pernicious; That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament, for longer time, or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal; That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal; That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;

48 That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defense suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law; That election of members of Parliament ought to be free; That the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament; That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted; That jurors ought to be duly impanelled and returned, and jurors which pass upon men in trials for high treason ought to be freeholders; That all grants and promises of fines and forfeitures of particular persons before conviction are illegal and void; And that for redress of all grievances, and for the amending, strengthening and preserving of the laws, Parliaments ought to be held frequently.

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