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WHY DON’T PEOPLE WANT TO HELP IN AN EMERGENCY???? Presence of others Uncertainty about the person’s condition Fear of catching a disease Fear of doing.

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Presentation on theme: "WHY DON’T PEOPLE WANT TO HELP IN AN EMERGENCY???? Presence of others Uncertainty about the person’s condition Fear of catching a disease Fear of doing."— Presentation transcript:

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2 WHY DON’T PEOPLE WANT TO HELP IN AN EMERGENCY???? Presence of others Uncertainty about the person’s condition Fear of catching a disease Fear of doing something wrong Fear of being sued Being unsure of when to call 911 Scared of blood

3 All 50 states have Good Samaritan Laws Enacted to protect people who voluntarily give emergency care, without accepting anything in return. Laws protect you as long as you – Act in good faith Are not negligent Act within the scope of your training CAN I GET IN TROUBLE IF I HELP SOMEONE? # 1

4 HOW DO I PREVENT DISEASE TRANSMISSION Use Universal Precautions - Avoid contact with: Blood Body fluids - Use PPE (personal protective equipment) such as: Gloves CPR barriers -Wash hands immediately after care # 2

5 WHAT CAN I DO? Provide Care - maintain normal body temperature - loosen tight clothing - reassure victim help is coming - learn basic first aid skills for common injuries Be Prepared… - keep a list of emergency numbers near by - know where family health records are kept - keep first aid supplies both at home and in a vehicle

6 FIRST AID KIT Basic First Aid Kit items: - scissors - bandages - tape - alcohol wipes - ibuprofen - gauze pads - rubber gloves - band aids Having several first aid kits around can be helpful. Keep one in the house, in the car, and always take one when camping or hiking. Do you know what should be in your kit?

7 YOUR RESPONSIBILITY 1.DECIDE to act 2.CHECK the area 3.CALL the local emergency services 4.Provide CARE until help arrives # 3

8 DECIDE TO ACT! For the victim in an emergency to receive treatment, someone must act. Someone needs to help, why not you??

9 YOUR RESPONSIBILITY 1.DECIDE to act 2.CHECK the area 3.CALL the local emergency services 4.Provide CARE until help arrives

10 CHECK THE AREA AROUND THE EMERGENCY You should determine: -What kind of an emergency -Is it safe for you and victim -The number of victims -The cause of the injury -Any unusual smells -How are the victims behaving -Any unusual noises # 4

11 YOUR RESPONSIBILITY 1.DECIDE to act 2.CHECK the area 3.CALL 911 for help 4.Provide CARE until help arrives

12 CALL FOR HELP It is very important after you check a scene of an emergency to decide if emergency personnel is needed. - How do I know? Is emergency life threatening? Are you sure you know how to help? The most important action for you to take at an emergency is to - It will start emergency medical help on its way as fast as possible.

13 LIFE THREATENING EMERGENCY? An emergency may be life threatening if the person: o Is unconscious, unresponsive, or not awake. o Is having trouble breathing or is not breathing. o Is not moving. o Is bleeding severely and the bleeding cannot be stopped. o Is having chest pain. If you are unsure if an emergency situation is life threatening or not, call

14 YOUR RESPONSIBILITY 1.DECIDE to act 2.CHECK the area 3.CALL the local emergency services 4.Provide CARE until help arrives

15 PROVIDING CARE When providing care it is important to remember: Remain calm!!! Remember to ask for consent to treat. What is your level of training? ALWAYS treat life threatening victims first! Watch for changes in breathing or consciousness

16 OBTAINING CONSENT Before helping someone, you MUST obtain permission to help someone If someone refuses care, call 911 for them If unconscious, confused or seriously ill & not able to grant consent, the consent is implied. If a minor, get consent from parent or guardian # 5

17 To Obtain Consent: State your name Tell the person you are trained in first aid Ask the person if you can help Explain what you think might be wrong Explain what you plan to do HOW DO I ASK TO HELP?

18 CONSCIOUS VICTIM 1.Check breathing- is it labored? 2.Introduce yourself and ask permission to help 3.Explain your training 4.Ask what happened and ask about the injury 5.Decide if you can help them or do you need paramedics

19 UNCONSCIOUS VICTIM 1.Check for breathing - if yes, roll onto side - if no, then you must start CPR 2. Check for bleeding

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21 WHAT IS FIRST AID? It is the temporary care given to a person who becomes injured or ill. Knowing what kind of first aid to provide can prevent serious and sometimes permanent damage to the victim. In some cases, first aid can even prevent death. You need to handle each emergency differently, depending on the severity of the illness or injury.

22 SOFT TISSUE INJURIES

23 TYPES OF WOUNDS 1. Soft tissues include layers of skin, fat, & muscle 2. Damage may be at the skin level or deeper in the body 3. A physical injury that damages the layers of skin is called a wound. 4. Wounds are typically classified as either opened or closed.

24 Closed: wounds where the skin’s surface is not broken. The simples closed wound is a bruise. It is caused by a blow to the body that damages the soft tissue layer and causes internal bleeding. When to call 911- CLOSED WOUNDS # 6

25 OPEN WOUNDS – the skin’s surface is broken, and blood may come through the tear in the skin. Types of open wounds: Abrasions – caused by something rubbing against skin Lacerations- a cut in the skin OPEN WOUNDS # 6 # 7

26 Types of open wounds cont.: Avulsions – when a portion of the skin is partially or completely torn away - Ice the area immediately Punctures- occur when a pointed object such as a nail, pierces the skin - bacteria can get in the wound, so you most likely will need a tetanus shot

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28 NEED STITCHES? Rule of thumb: if you are wondering if it needs stitches, it probably does  Used when edges of skin don’t fall together  When cut is on the face  Any wounds over ½ inch long  Wounds that are deep

29 CONTROLLING OPEN WOUND BLEEDING Cover the wound with a sterile dressing -If it bleeds through dressing, apply another dressing over previous… NEVER remove a dressing. Apply direct pressure until bleeding stops Cover the sterile dressing with a bandage. Make sure it is not too tight that it cuts off circulation. # 8

30 TYPES OF BURNS Cause: Thermal (heat) Chemicals Electricity Radiation

31 Classifications: by depth 1 st degree sunburn epidermis only never blisters not calculated in burn extent 2 nd degree through the epidermis into the dermis blister develop pink, moist, painful can hurt the worst 3 rd degree All three layers burned May be tissue damage to the bone May or may not be painful # 9

32 CARING FOR A MINOR BURN Do: Check scene for safety Remove source of burn Cool 1 st and 2 nd degree burns with cool running water Cover wound loosely with a sterile dressing # 10

33 DO NOT!!!! Use ice Break blisters Remove pieces of clothing stuck to burn Use any type of ointment on a severe burns Do not immerse 3 rd degree burns in water Do not touch the area of a burn with anything but a clean covering

34 No! Cotton wool will stick to the burn. Never cover a burn with anything fluffy. Yes! If you haven’t got water to cool a burn, a cold liquid, like milk will do Yes! Use water to cool a burn for at least 10 minutes. Would you put it on a burn? Click yes or no! 5. Sterile gauze 3. Cold water 4. Cold milk 2. Cotton wool 1. Butter Yes No No! A doctor would have to scrape butter off the burn before treating it. Ouch! Yes! The gauze will keep it clean.

35 CHEMICAL BURNS Remove contaminated clothing if possible Brush off dry chemicals Flush burn with water for 15 to 20 minutes Flush eye, if chemical in eye, for 15 – 20 min.

36 ELECTRICAL BURNS Look First, Do Not Touch DO NOT go near person until he/she is not in contact with power source High-voltage: call 911 Turn off power source Observe for cardiac arrest Care for shock, thermal burns All need advanced medical care These burn from the inside – out They are extremely dangerous

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38 SUDDEN ILLNESSES

39 SUDDEN ILLNESS General Guidelines Do no further harm Monitor breathing and consciousness Help the person rest in the most comfortable position Keep the person from getting chilled or overheated Reassure the person Give any specific care needed

40 FAINTING Temporary loss of consciousness Caused by a temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain Usually self-correcting Victim recovers quickly with no lasting effects Place victim on their side in a resting position

41 DIABETIC EMERGENCY Body does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin effectively If victim conscious and able to swallow: They might need help injecting Give sugar If victim unable to swallow or sugar not available call 911

42 SEIZURE What are they? Disruption of normal electrical activity of the brain causing a loss of body control What can you do? o Do NOT put anything in their mouths o Do NOT restrain the person o Prevent injury o Make sure person is breathing Seizures—call if: o They are injured or remains unconscious when the seizure is over. o The person is pregnant or has diabetes. o The person is very young or very old. o It is the person’s first seizure. Video – 5:30 min # 11

43 POISONIN G Definition: Any substance that can cause injury, illness or death when introduced into the body How introduced into the body: Inhalation Swallowed Absorption Injection Treatment If life threatening call 911 Call Poison Control Center and follow their directions DO NOT give anything by mouth

44 Suddenly your friend starts choking on a piece of food… … struggling for breath… holding his throat… turning red in the face… CHOKIN G What do you do?????

45 mild choking both unable to speak difficulty breathing unable to breathe coughs red face holding throat unable to cough answers when questioned First ask: “Are you choking?” Sort the boxes into the Venn diagram. See the next slide for answers… severe choking

46 mild choking severe choking unable to speak difficulty breathing unable to breathe coughs red face holding throat unable to cough answers when questioned both # 12

47 If choking is mild, encourage the choking person to cough. This should clear the problem.

48 If your friend can’t speak or cough, the choking is severe. Your friend’s airway has been blocked by food. Unable to breathe, your friend may quickly pass out. You must act right away. Airway Food

49 When someone’s choking badly, you must do something. The video clip shows you what to do… # 13

50 STROK E What is it? It is when the blood flow to an area of brain is cut off. This deprives th brain cells of oxygen and begin to die. Think F.A.S.T. o F = Face – weakness on one side o A = Arms – weak or numb o S = Speech – slurred or trouble talking o T = Time – call 911 now!! # 14

51 SHOC K What is it? Life-threatening condition in which there is not enough blood being delivered to all parts of the body When can you get it? Can happen after a serious injury or illness including: severe bleeding Serious internal injury Blood or body fluid loss What are the signs? Restlessness or irritability Altered level of consciousness Nausea or Vomiting Pale, ashen, cool, moist skin Rapid breathing and pulse Excessive thirst # 15

52 How do you take care of someone in shock? Call 911 Remain calm Have the person lie down Control any external bleeding Cover with a blanket DO NOT give anything to eat or drink Reassure the person Monitor airway, breathing, and circulation

53 ALLERGIC REACTION Cause: Drugs Medications Foods Chemicals Treatment: Check Call Care Give care for any life-threatening condition Epinephrine auto-injector

54 Insect Stings Scrape away the stinger Wash site with soap and water Cold pack to reduce pain Watch for signs of an allergic reaction Tick Bites Remove tick with tweezers as close to skin as possible and pull slowly DO NOT Burn tick off Apply petroleum jelly If rash, flu-like sx, or joint pain seek medical care BITES & STINGS Severe reactions include: weakness, swelling of the face and neck, and difficulty breathing. If these signs are present… call 911 # 16

55 INJURIES TO MUSCLES, BONES, AND JOINTS

56 TYPES OF MUSCLE, BONE AND JOINT INJURIES Fractures: break in bone Open Fracture: skin over fracture broken Closed Fracture: skin over fracture intact Dislocation: displacement of a bone at the joint # 17

57 Sprain: partial or complete tearing or stretching of a ligament Strain: stretching or tearing of muscles or tendon fibers

58 CARE FOR MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM R est I ce C ompress E levate R est I mmobilize C old E levate Think RICE! # 18

59 WHEN DO YOU CALL 911? Open fracture—you can see bone Cannot move or use the hurt part normally (for example, if the person cannot stand on his/her leg) Area is cold and numb Involves the head, neck or spine Trouble breathing

60 SPLINTIN G Definition: method of immobilizing Splint injury in position in which you find it Splint the injured area and the joints or bones above and below the injury site Check for circulation Feeling, warmth, and color

61 TYPES OF SPLINTS Soft Splint Use of pillows, folded blankets, towels, & a sling Rigid Splint Includes boards, metal strips & folded magazines or newspapers Use a triangular bandage Anatomical Splints Use uninjured body part as a splint to immobilize an injured area

62 ANATOMIC SPLINT 1.Get consent to treat 2.Check circulation 3.Position bandages 3.Align body parts 4.Tie bandages securely 5.Recheck circulation

63 1.Support injured part 2.Check circulation 3.Position bandages SOFT SPLINT 3.Wrap with soft object 4.Tie bandages securely 5.Recheck circulation

64 After an injury ice can be very beneficial. It can: Reduce bleeding within tissues Prevent or reduce swelling Reduce muscle spasm Reduce pain by numbing the area and reducing swelling (which causes pain through pressure) Ice or cold packs should be applied for minutes every 2-3 hours. Be sure to protect the skin if you apply ice/cold packs to prevent an ice burn. Heat is beneficial when the injury is hours old, otherwise it can worsen the bleeding and inflammation. Heat can be applied in the form of: Deep heat creams Heat pads Hot water bottles Heat works by dilating the blood vessels allowing more blood to the area which has a soothing effect. It eases pain and muscle spasms. HOT OR COLD THERAPY? # 19

65 NECK, HEAD, AND BACK INJURIES

66 CARE FOR INJURIES TO THE HEAD, NECK, OR BACK Call 911! These injuries may cause unintentional death or life-long neurological damage Minimize movement of the head, neck or back Leave victim in the position found in  If the head is turned sharply to one side, DO NOT try to align it. Support the head in the position you found it in. # 20

67 CONCUSSION S What are they? It is a type of traumatic brain injury that is caused by a blow to the head or body, a fall, or another injury that jars or shakes the brain inside the skull. Signals o Loss of balance o Vision disturbances o Nausea and vomiting o Dizziness o Headache # 21

68 BRAIN INJURIES SIGNALS FOR BRAIN INJURIES: Changes in consciousness, such as confusion and excessive sleepiness Severe pain or pressure in the head, neck or back Tingling or loss of feeling in the hands, fingers, feet or toes Partial or complete loss of movement of any body part Blood or other fluids draining from the ears or nose Heavy external bleeding of the head, neck or back Seizures Trouble breathing or seeing as a result of the injury Nausea or vomiting Loss of balance (after the initial injury) Bruising of the head, especially around the eyes and behind the ears

69 WHEN DO I CALL 911? Suspect a serious head or spinal injury when the person: o Says there is neck or back pain. o Has tingling or weakness in the arms or legs. o Is not fully alert. o Staggers when trying to walk. o Appears to be unexpectedly weak. Call

70 HEAT & COLD RELATED EMERGENCIES

71 HYPOTHER MIA What is it? When your body loses heat faster than it can produce it. Normal body temperature is around 98.6° F Hypothermia is when the body temperature passes below 95° F. When does it happen? When there is overexposure to cool temperatures, cold water, moisture, and/or wind. What happens to the victim? -shivers and feels cold -trouble speaking -tired -confused -pulse rate slows down and becomes irregular -can become unconscious and die if not treated # 22

72 HYPOTHER MIA CONT. What do you do? - call 911 ASAP - handle them carefully - try to get them to a warmer environment - remove wet clothing and put on dry clothing

73 FROSTBIT E What is it? The freezing of body parts exposed to the cold. What to look for: -lack of feeling -skin swollen and waxy looking -skin cold to the touch -skin may be discolored -blisters may form -may turn black if severe # 23

74 FROSTBIT E CONT. Call 911 if severe! Until help arrives: handle the area gently remove wet clothing and jewelry if minor, you can rewarm the area using skin-to-skin contact Warm them up slowly! NEVER: rub the area rewarm the area if there is a chance it might refreeze or you are going to the hospital give ibuprofen break the blisters

75 HEAT-RELATED ILLNESSES Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke and all caused by overexposure to heat, loss of fluids and electrolytes. HEAT EXHAUSTION is more severe than heat cramps. It affects, athletes, firefighters, construction works or factory workers most often. Signs: cool, moist, pale, ashen or flushed skin; headache;nausea;dizzine4ss; weakness; and exhaustion What do you do? - get them out of the heat - give cool liquids - loosen or remove clothes - let the person rest

76 HEAT STROKE:CALL 911!!!!! Least common, but most severe of heat related illnesses. Occurs when people ignore the warning signals of heat exhaustion. Watch for: - extremely high body temp - red skin that can be dry or moist - changes in consciousness - confusion - rapid or weak pulse - shallow breathing - vomiting - seizures Cool them off ASAP! # 24


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