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First Aid and CPR.

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Presentation on theme: "First Aid and CPR."— Presentation transcript:

1 First Aid and CPR

2 Why don’t people want to help in an emergency????
Presence of others Uncertainty about the person’s condition Fear of catching a disease Fear of doing something wrong Fear of being sued Being unsure of when to call 911 Scared of blood

3 Can I get in trouble if I help someone?
# 1 Can I get in trouble if I help someone? All 50 states have Good Samaritan Laws Enacted to protect people who voluntarily give emergency care, without accepting anything in return. Laws protect you as long as you – Act in good faith Are not negligent Act within the scope of your training

4 How do I Prevent Disease Transmission
# 2 Use Universal Precautions - Avoid contact with: Blood Body fluids - Use PPE (personal protective equipment) such as: Gloves CPR barriers Wash hands immediately after care

5 What Can I do? Provide Care Be Prepared…
- maintain normal body temperature - loosen tight clothing - reassure victim help is coming - learn basic first aid skills for common injuries Be Prepared… - keep a list of emergency numbers near by - know where family health records are kept - keep first aid supplies both at home and in a vehicle

6 First Aid Kit Having several first aid kits around can be helpful.
Keep one in the house, in the car, and always take one when camping or hiking. Do you know what should be in your kit? Basic First Aid Kit items: - scissors - bandages - tape - alcohol wipes - ibuprofen - gauze pads - rubber gloves - band aids

7 Your Responsibility # 3 DECIDE to act CHECK the area
CALL the local emergency services Provide CARE until help arrives

8 Decide to Act! For the victim in an emergency to receive treatment, someone must act. Someone needs to help, why not you??

9 Your Responsibility DECIDE to act CHECK the area
CALL the local emergency services Provide CARE until help arrives

10 Check the Area around the Emergency
# 4 Check the Area around the Emergency You should determine: What kind of an emergency Is it safe for you and victim The number of victims The cause of the injury Any unusual smells How are the victims behaving Any unusual noises

11 Your Responsibility DECIDE to act CHECK the area CALL 911 for help
Provide CARE until help arrives

12 It will start emergency medical help on its
Call For Help It is very important after you check a scene of an emergency to decide if emergency personnel is needed. - How do I know? Is emergency life threatening? Are you sure you know how to help? The most important action for you to take at an emergency is to - It will start emergency medical help on its way as fast as possible.

13 life Threatening emergency?
An emergency may be life threatening if the person: Is unconscious, unresponsive, or not awake. Is having trouble breathing or is not breathing. Is not moving. Is bleeding severely and the bleeding cannot be stopped. Is having chest pain. If you are unsure if an emergency situation is life threatening or not, call

14 Your Responsibility DECIDE to act CHECK the area
CALL the local emergency services Provide CARE until help arrives

15 Providing Care When providing care it is important to remember:
Remain calm!!! Remember to ask for consent to treat. What is your level of training? ALWAYS treat life threatening victims first! Watch for changes in breathing or consciousness

16 # 5 Obtaining Consent Before helping someone, you MUST obtain permission to help someone If someone refuses care, call 911 for them If unconscious, confused or seriously ill & not able to grant consent, the consent is implied. If a minor, get consent from parent or guardian

17 How do I ask to help? To Obtain Consent: State your name
Tell the person you are trained in first aid Ask the person if you can help Explain what you think might be wrong Explain what you plan to do

18 Conscious Victim Check breathing- is it labored?
Introduce yourself and ask permission to help Explain your training Ask what happened and ask about the injury Decide if you can help them or do you need paramedics

19 Unconscious Victim Check for breathing - if yes, roll onto side
- if no, then you must start CPR 2. Check for bleeding


21 What is First Aid? It is the temporary care given to a person who becomes injured or ill. Knowing what kind of first aid to provide can prevent serious and sometimes permanent damage to the victim. In some cases, first aid can even prevent death. You need to handle each emergency differently, depending on the severity of the illness or injury.

22 Soft Tissue injuries

23 Types of Wounds 1. Soft tissues include layers of skin, fat, & muscle
2. Damage may be at the skin level or deeper in the body 3. A physical injury that damages the layers of skin is called a wound. 4. Wounds are typically classified as either opened or closed.

24 Closed Wounds # 6 Closed: wounds where the skin’s surface is not broken. The simples closed wound is a bruise. It is caused by a blow to the body that damages the soft tissue layer and causes internal bleeding. When to call 911-

25 Open Wounds # 6 OPEN WOUNDS – the skin’s surface is broken, and blood may come through the tear in the skin. Types of open wounds: Abrasions – caused by something rubbing against skin Lacerations- a cut in the skin # 7

26 Types of open wounds cont.:
Avulsions – when a portion of the skin is partially or completely torn away - Ice the area immediately Punctures- occur when a pointed object such as a nail, pierces the skin - bacteria can get in the wound, so you most likely will need a tetanus shot


28 Need Stitches? Rule of thumb: if you are wondering if it needs stitches, it probably does  Used when edges of skin don’t fall together When cut is on the face Any wounds over ½ inch long Wounds that are deep

29 Controlling Open Wound Bleeding
# 8 Controlling Open Wound Bleeding Cover the wound with a sterile dressing -If it bleeds through dressing, apply another dressing over previous… NEVER remove a dressing. Apply direct pressure until bleeding stops Cover the sterile dressing with a bandage. Make sure it is not too tight that it cuts off circulation.

30 Types of Burns Cause: Thermal (heat) Chemicals Electricity Radiation

31 # 9 Classifications: by depth 1st degree 2nd degree 3rd degree sunburn
epidermis only never blisters not calculated in burn extent 2nd degree through the epidermis into the dermis blister develop pink, moist, painful can hurt the worst 3rd degree All three layers burned May be tissue damage to the bone May or may not be painful

32 Caring for a Minor Burn Do: # 10 Check scene for safety
Remove source of burn Cool 1st and 2nd degree burns with cool running water Cover wound loosely with a sterile dressing

33 DO NOT!!!! Use ice Break blisters
Remove pieces of clothing stuck to burn Use any type of ointment on a severe burns Do not immerse 3rd degree burns in water Do not touch the area of a burn with anything but a clean covering

34 Would you put it on a burn? Click yes or no!
A doctor would have to scrape butter off the burn before treating it. Ouch! No! Cotton wool will stick to the burn. Never cover a burn with anything fluffy. Yes No 1. Butter 2. Cotton wool Yes! If you haven’t got water to cool a burn, a cold liquid, like milk will do Yes! The gauze will keep it clean. Yes! Use water to cool a burn for at least 10 minutes. b. how to treat a burn or scald Put the class into 5 groups. Give each either a picture of one of the items (provided in Treatment cards in lesson resources) or, if available, the actual object. Give the groups 5 minutes to discuss whether they would put it on a burn and to explain why. The groups then feed back to the class. Note – if you are using Microsoft PowerPoint 2000 or earlier, this animation may not function. Remove each layer manually to reveal the explanatory text. (Alternative activity. Time needed: 10 minutes.) Notes: Butter: fatty products do not have cooling qualities. Cotton wool: fluffy fibres will stick to the burn. Cling film: good to protect the burn as it is transparent and won't stick to the burn. Water: good to cool the burn down. Milk: if there is no water available, this could also cool the burn without causing damage. 3. Cold water 4. Cold milk 5. Sterile gauze

35 Chemical Burns Remove contaminated clothing if possible
Brush off dry chemicals Flush burn with water for 15 to 20 minutes Flush eye, if chemical in eye, for 15 – 20 min.

36 Electrical Burns Look First, Do Not Touch High-voltage: call 911
DO NOT go near person until he/she is not in contact with power source High-voltage: call 911 Turn off power source Observe for cardiac arrest Care for shock, thermal burns All need advanced medical care These burn from the inside – out They are extremely dangerous


38 Sudden Illnesses

39 Sudden Illness General Guidelines Do no further harm
Monitor breathing and consciousness Help the person rest in the most comfortable position Keep the person from getting chilled or overheated Reassure the person Give any specific care needed

40 Fainting Temporary loss of consciousness
Caused by a temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain Usually self-correcting Victim recovers quickly with no lasting effects Place victim on their side in a resting position

41 Diabetic Emergency Body does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin effectively If victim conscious and able to swallow: They might need help injecting Give sugar If victim unable to swallow or sugar not available call 911

42 Seizure # 11 Video – 5:30 min What are they?
Disruption of normal electrical activity of the brain causing a loss of body control What can you do? Do NOT put anything in their mouths Do NOT restrain the person Prevent injury Make sure person is breathing Video – 5:30 min Seizures—call if: They are injured or remains unconscious when the seizure is over. The person is pregnant or has diabetes. The person is very young or very old. It is the person’s first seizure.

43 Poisoning Definition:
Any substance that can cause injury, illness or death when introduced into the body How introduced into the body: Inhalation Swallowed Absorption Injection Treatment If life threatening call 911 Call Poison Control Center and follow their directions DO NOT give anything by mouth

44 Choking … struggling for breath… holding his throat… turning red in the face… Suddenly your friend starts choking on a piece of food… a how to help someone who is choking Ask students: “What is choking?” Explain that choking occurs when the airway is blocked, or partially blocked. This could be by food or a small toy for example. “What would you do if you were on your own?” What do you do?????

45 answers when questioned
First ask: “Are you choking?” mild choking severe choking both a how to help someone who is choking Ask the class to sort the boxes into the Venn diagram. In Slideshow view they could come to the board and draw arrows. In Normal view they could drag and drop them to the correct position. Click to the next slide for the correct answer. (Time needed: 10 minutes) answers when questioned unable to speak holding throat unable to cough difficulty breathing coughs unable to breathe red face Sort the boxes into the Venn diagram. See the next slide for answers…

46 answers when questioned
# 12 mild choking severe choking coughs both unable to breathe red face answers when questioned unable to cough holding throat a how to help someone who is choking difficulty breathing unable to speak

47 a how to help someone who is choking
If choking is mild, encourage the choking person to cough. This should clear the problem.

48 If your friend can’t speak or cough, the choking is severe.
Your friend’s airway has been blocked by food. Unable to breathe, your friend may quickly pass out. You must act right away. Airway a to assess how serious a person’s choking is Food

49 When someone’s choking badly, you must do something.
# 13 When someone’s choking badly, you must do something. The video clip shows you what to do… a. how to help someone who is choking Students should watch the video clip and then replay it. (Time needed: 5 minutes) For an alternative video try the ‘Christmas Disaster’ video available here:

50 # 14 Stroke What is it? It is when the blood flow to an area of brain is cut off. This deprives th brain cells of oxygen and begin to die. Think F.A.S.T. F = Face – weakness on one side A = Arms – weak or numb S = Speech – slurred or trouble talking T = Time – call 911 now!!

51 # 15 Shock What is it? Life-threatening condition in which there is not enough blood being delivered to all parts of the body When can you get it? Can happen after a serious injury or illness including: severe bleeding Serious internal injury Blood or body fluid loss What are the signs? Restlessness or irritability Altered level of consciousness Nausea or Vomiting Pale, ashen, cool, moist skin Rapid breathing and pulse Excessive thirst

52 How do you take care of someone in shock?
Call 911 Remain calm Have the person lie down Control any external bleeding Cover with a blanket DO NOT give anything to eat or drink Reassure the person Monitor airway, breathing, and circulation

53 Allergic Reaction Cause: Treatment: Drugs Medications Foods Chemicals
Check Call Care Give care for any life-threatening condition Epinephrine auto-injector

54 # 16 Bites & Stings Insect Stings Scrape away the stinger Wash site with soap and water Cold pack to reduce pain Watch for signs of an allergic reaction Tick Bites Remove tick with tweezers as close to skin as possible and pull slowly DO NOT Burn tick off Apply petroleum jelly If rash, flu-like sx, or joint pain seek medical care Severe reactions include: weakness, swelling of the face and neck, and difficulty breathing. If these signs are present… call 911

55 Injuries to Muscles, Bones, and Joints

56 Types of Muscle, Bone and Joint Injuries
# 17 Types of Muscle, Bone and Joint Injuries Fractures: break in bone Open Fracture: skin over fracture broken Closed Fracture: skin over fracture intact Dislocation: displacement of a bone at the joint

57 Sprain: partial or complete tearing or stretching of a ligament
Strain: stretching or tearing of muscles or tendon fibers

58 Care for Musculoskeletal System
# 18 Care for Musculoskeletal System Think RICE! Rest Ice Compress Elevate Rest Immobilize Cold Elevate

59 When do you call 911? Open fracture—you can see bone
Cannot move or use the hurt part normally (for example, if the person cannot stand on his/her leg) Area is cold and numb Involves the head, neck or spine Trouble breathing

60 Splinting Definition: method of immobilizing
Splint injury in position in which you find it Splint the injured area and the joints or bones above and below the injury site Check for circulation Feeling, warmth, and color

61 Types of Splints Soft Splint
Use of pillows, folded blankets, towels, & a sling Rigid Splint Includes boards, metal strips & folded magazines or newspapers Use a triangular bandage Anatomical Splints Use uninjured body part as a splint to immobilize an injured area

62 Anatomic Splint Get consent to treat Check circulation
Position bandages Align body parts Tie bandages securely Recheck circulation

63 Soft Splint Support injured part Wrap with soft object
Check circulation Position bandages Wrap with soft object Tie bandages securely Recheck circulation

64 # 19 Hot or Cold Therapy? After an injury ice can be very beneficial. It can: Reduce bleeding within tissues Prevent or reduce swelling Reduce muscle spasm Reduce pain by numbing the area and reducing swelling (which causes pain through pressure) Ice or cold packs should be applied for minutes every 2-3 hours. Be sure to protect the skin if you apply ice/cold packs to prevent an ice burn. Heat is beneficial when the injury is hours old, otherwise it can worsen the bleeding and inflammation. Heat can be applied in the form of: Deep heat creams Heat pads Hot water bottles Heat works by dilating the blood vessels allowing more blood to the area which has a soothing effect. It eases pain and muscle spasms.

65 Neck, Head, and Back injuries

66 Care for Injuries to the Head, Neck, or Back
# 20 Care for Injuries to the Head, Neck, or Back Call 911! These injuries may cause unintentional death or life-long neurological damage Minimize movement of the head, neck or back Leave victim in the position found in If the head is turned sharply to one side, DO NOT try to align it. Support the head in the position you found it in.

67 Concussions # 21 What are they?
It is a type of traumatic brain injury that is caused by a blow to the head or body, a fall, or another injury that jars or shakes the brain inside the skull. Signals Loss of balance Vision disturbances Nausea and vomiting Dizziness Headache

Changes in consciousness, such as confusion and excessive sleepiness Severe pain or pressure in the head, neck or back Tingling or loss of feeling in the hands, fingers, feet or toes Partial or complete loss of movement of any body part Blood or other fluids draining from the ears or nose Heavy external bleeding of the head, neck or back Seizures Trouble breathing or seeing as a result of the injury Nausea or vomiting Loss of balance (after the initial injury) Bruising of the head, especially around the eyes and behind the ears

69 When Do I call 911? Suspect a serious head or spinal injury when the person: Says there is neck or back pain. Has tingling or weakness in the arms or legs. Is not fully alert. Staggers when trying to walk. Appears to be unexpectedly weak. Call

70 Heat & cold Related Emergencies

71 Hypothermia # 22 What is it? When does it happen?
When your body loses heat faster than it can produce it. Normal body temperature is around 98.6° F Hypothermia is when the body temperature passes below 95° F. When does it happen? When there is overexposure to cool temperatures, cold water, moisture, and/or wind. What happens to the victim? -shivers and feels cold -trouble speaking -tired -confused -pulse rate slows down and becomes irregular -can become unconscious and die if not treated

72 Hypothermia Cont. What do you do? - call 911 ASAP - handle them carefully - try to get them to a warmer environment - remove wet clothing and put on dry clothing

73 # 23 frostbite What is it? The freezing of body parts exposed to the cold. What to look for: -lack of feeling -skin swollen and waxy looking -skin cold to the touch -skin may be discolored -blisters may form -may turn black if severe

74 Frostbite cont. Call 911 if severe! Until help arrives:
handle the area gently remove wet clothing and jewelry if minor, you can rewarm the area using skin-to-skin contact Warm them up slowly! NEVER: rub the area rewarm the area if there is a chance it might refreeze or you are going to the hospital give ibuprofen break the blisters

75 Heat-Related illnesses
Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke and all caused by overexposure to heat, loss of fluids and electrolytes. Heat exhaustion is more severe than heat cramps. It affects, athletes, firefighters, construction works or factory workers most often. Signs: cool, moist, pale, ashen or flushed skin; headache;nausea;dizzine4ss; weakness; and exhaustion What do you do? - get them out of the heat - give cool liquids - loosen or remove clothes - let the person rest

76 # 24 HEAT STROKE: CALL 911!!!!! Least common, but most severe of heat related illnesses. Occurs when people ignore the warning signals of heat exhaustion. Watch for: - extremely high body temp - red skin that can be dry or moist - changes in consciousness - confusion - rapid or weak pulse - shallow breathing - vomiting - seizures Cool them off ASAP!

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