2Why don’t people want to help in an emergency???? Presence of othersUncertainty about the person’s conditionFear of catching a diseaseFear of doing something wrongFear of being suedBeing unsure of when to call 911Scared of blood
3Can I get in trouble if I help someone? # 1Can I get in trouble if I help someone?All 50 states have Good Samaritan LawsEnacted to protect people who voluntarily give emergency care, without accepting anything in return.Laws protect you as long as you –Act in good faithAre not negligentAct within the scope of your training
4How do I Prevent Disease Transmission # 2Use Universal Precautions- Avoid contact with:BloodBody fluids- Use PPE (personal protective equipment) such as:GlovesCPR barriersWash hands immediately after care
5What Can I do? Provide Care Be Prepared… - maintain normal body temperature- loosen tight clothing- reassure victim help is coming- learn basic first aid skills for common injuriesBe Prepared…- keep a list of emergency numbers near by- know where family health records are kept- keep first aid supplies both at home and in a vehicle
6First Aid Kit Having several first aid kits around can be helpful. Keep one in the house, in the car, and always take one when camping or hiking.Do you know what should be in your kit?Basic First Aid Kit items:- scissors- bandages- tape- alcohol wipes- ibuprofen- gauze pads- rubber gloves- band aids
7Your Responsibility # 3 DECIDE to act CHECK the area CALL the local emergency servicesProvide CARE until help arrives
8Decide to Act!For the victim in an emergency to receive treatment, someone must act. Someone needs to help, why not you??
9Your Responsibility DECIDE to act CHECK the area CALL the local emergency servicesProvide CARE until help arrives
10Check the Area around the Emergency # 4Check the Area around the EmergencyYou should determine:What kind of an emergencyIs it safe for you and victimThe number of victimsThe cause of the injuryAny unusual smellsHow are the victims behavingAny unusual noises
11Your Responsibility DECIDE to act CHECK the area CALL 911 for help Provide CARE until help arrives
12It will start emergency medical help on its Call For HelpIt is very important after you check a scene of an emergency to decide if emergency personnel is needed. - How do I know? Is emergency life threatening? Are you sure you know how to help? The most important action for you to take at an emergency is to -It will start emergency medical help on itsway as fast as possible.
13life Threatening emergency? An emergency may be life threatening if the person:Is unconscious, unresponsive, or not awake.Is having trouble breathing or is not breathing.Is not moving.Is bleeding severely and the bleeding cannot be stopped.Is having chest pain.If you are unsure if an emergency situation is life threatening or not, call
14Your Responsibility DECIDE to act CHECK the area CALL the local emergency servicesProvide CARE until help arrives
15Providing Care When providing care it is important to remember: Remain calm!!!Remember to ask for consent to treat.What is your level of training?ALWAYS treat life threatening victims first!Watch for changes in breathing or consciousness
16# 5Obtaining ConsentBefore helping someone, you MUST obtain permission to help someoneIf someone refuses care, call 911 for themIf unconscious, confused or seriously ill & not able to grant consent, the consent is implied.If a minor, get consent from parent or guardian
17How do I ask to help? To Obtain Consent: State your name Tell the person you are trained in first aidAsk the person if you can helpExplain what you think might be wrongExplain what you plan to do
18Conscious Victim Check breathing- is it labored? Introduce yourself and ask permission to helpExplain your trainingAsk what happened and ask about the injuryDecide if you can help them or do you need paramedics
19Unconscious Victim Check for breathing - if yes, roll onto side - if no, then you must start CPR2. Check for bleeding
21What is First Aid?It is the temporary care given to a person who becomes injured or ill.Knowing what kind of first aid to provide can prevent serious and sometimes permanent damage to the victim. In some cases, first aid can even prevent death.You need to handle each emergency differently, depending on the severity of the illness or injury.
23Types of Wounds 1. Soft tissues include layers of skin, fat, & muscle 2. Damage may be at the skin level or deeper in the body3. A physical injury that damages the layers of skin is called a wound.4. Wounds are typically classified as either opened or closed.
24Closed Wounds# 6Closed: wounds where the skin’s surface is not broken.The simples closed wound is a bruise. It is caused by a blow to the body that damages the soft tissue layer and causes internal bleeding.When to call 911-
25Open Wounds# 6OPEN WOUNDS – the skin’s surface is broken, and blood may come through the tear in the skin.Types of open wounds:Abrasions – caused by somethingrubbing against skinLacerations- a cut in the skin# 7
26Types of open wounds cont.: Avulsions – when a portion of the skin is partially or completely torn away- Ice the area immediatelyPunctures- occur when a pointedobject such as a nail, pierces the skin- bacteria can get in the wound, so you most likely will need a tetanus shot
28Need Stitches?Rule of thumb: if you are wondering if it needs stitches, it probably does Used when edges of skin don’t fall togetherWhen cut is on the faceAny wounds over ½ inch longWounds that are deep
29Controlling Open Wound Bleeding # 8Controlling Open Wound BleedingCover the wound with a sterile dressing-If it bleeds through dressing, apply another dressing over previous… NEVER remove a dressing.Apply direct pressure until bleeding stopsCover the sterile dressing with a bandage.Make sure it is not too tight that it cuts off circulation.
30Types of BurnsCause:Thermal (heat)ChemicalsElectricityRadiation
31# 9 Classifications: by depth 1st degree 2nd degree 3rd degree sunburn epidermis onlynever blistersnot calculated in burn extent2nd degreethrough the epidermis into the dermisblister developpink, moist, painfulcan hurt the worst3rd degreeAll three layers burnedMay be tissue damage to the boneMay or may not be painful
32Caring for a Minor Burn Do: # 10 Check scene for safety Remove source of burnCool 1st and 2nd degree burns with cool running waterCover wound loosely with a sterile dressing
33DO NOT!!!! Use ice Break blisters Remove pieces of clothing stuck to burnUse any type of ointment on a severe burnsDo not immerse 3rd degree burns in waterDo not touch the area of a burn with anything but a clean covering
34Would you put it on a burn? Click yes or no! A doctor would have to scrape butter off the burn before treating it. Ouch!No!Cotton wool will stick to the burn. Never cover a burn with anything fluffy.YesNo1. Butter2. Cotton woolYes!If you haven’t got water to cool a burn, a cold liquid, like milk will doYes!The gauze will keep it clean.Yes!Use water to cool a burn for at least 10 minutes.b. how to treat a burn or scaldPut the class into 5 groups. Give each either a picture of one of the items (provided in Treatment cards in lesson resources) or, if available, the actual object. Give the groups 5 minutes to discuss whether they would put it on a burn and to explain why. The groups then feed back to the class.Note – if you are using Microsoft PowerPoint 2000 or earlier, this animation may not function. Remove each layer manually to reveal the explanatory text.(Alternative activity. Time needed: 10 minutes.)Notes:Butter: fatty products do not have cooling qualities.Cotton wool: fluffy fibres will stick to the burn.Cling film: good to protect the burn as it is transparent and won't stick to the burn.Water: good to cool the burn down.Milk: if there is no water available, this could also cool the burn without causing damage.3. Cold water4. Cold milk5. Sterile gauze
35Chemical Burns Remove contaminated clothing if possible Brush off dry chemicalsFlush burn with water for 15 to 20 minutesFlush eye, if chemical in eye, for 15 – 20 min.
36Electrical Burns Look First, Do Not Touch High-voltage: call 911 DO NOT go near person until he/she is not in contact with power sourceHigh-voltage: call 911Turn off power sourceObserve for cardiac arrestCare for shock, thermal burnsAll need advanced medical careThese burn from the inside – outThey are extremely dangerous
39Sudden Illness General Guidelines Do no further harm Monitor breathing and consciousnessHelp the person rest in the most comfortable positionKeep the person from getting chilled or overheatedReassure the personGive any specific care needed
40Fainting Temporary loss of consciousness Caused by a temporary reduction of blood flow to the brainUsually self-correctingVictim recovers quickly with no lasting effectsPlace victim on their side in a resting position
41Diabetic EmergencyBody does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin effectivelyIf victim conscious and able to swallow:They might need help injectingGive sugarIf victim unable to swallow or sugar not available call 911
42Seizure # 11 Video – 5:30 min What are they? Disruption of normal electrical activity of the brain causing a loss of body controlWhat can you do?Do NOT put anything in their mouthsDo NOT restrain the personPrevent injuryMake sure person is breathingVideo – 5:30 minSeizures—call if:They are injured or remains unconscious when the seizure is over.The person is pregnant or has diabetes.The person is very young or very old.It is the person’s first seizure.
43Poisoning Definition: Any substance that can cause injury, illness or death when introduced into the bodyHow introduced into the body:InhalationSwallowedAbsorptionInjectionTreatmentIf life threatening call 911Call Poison Control Center and follow their directionsDO NOT give anything by mouth
44Choking… struggling for breath… holding his throat… turning red in the face…Suddenly your friend starts choking on a piece of food…a how to help someone who is chokingAsk students: “What is choking?”Explain that choking occurs when the airway is blocked, or partially blocked. This could be by food or a small toy for example.“What would you do if you were on your own?”What do you do?????
45answers when questioned First ask: “Are you choking?”mild chokingsevere chokingbotha how to help someone who is chokingAsk the class to sort the boxes into the Venn diagram. In Slideshow view they could come to the board and draw arrows. In Normal view they could drag and drop them to the correct position. Click to the next slide for the correct answer.(Time needed: 10 minutes)answers when questionedunable tospeakholding throatunable tocoughdifficultybreathingcoughsunable to breathered faceSort the boxes into the Venn diagram. See the next slide for answers…
46answers when questioned # 12mild chokingsevere chokingcoughsbothunable to breathered faceanswers when questionedunable tocoughholding throata how to help someone who is chokingdifficultybreathingunable tospeak
47a how to help someone who is choking If choking is mild, encourage the choking person to cough. This should clear the problem.
48If your friend can’t speak or cough, the choking is severe. Your friend’s airway has been blocked by food.Unable to breathe, your friend may quickly pass out.You must act right away.Airwaya to assess how serious a person’s choking isFood
49When someone’s choking badly, you must do something. # 13When someone’s choking badly, you must do something.The video clip shows you what to do…a. how to help someone who is chokingStudents should watch the video clip and then replay it.(Time needed: 5 minutes)For an alternative video try the ‘Christmas Disaster’ video available here:
50# 14StrokeWhat is it? It is when the blood flow to an area of brain is cut off. This deprives th brain cells of oxygen and begin to die.Think F.A.S.T.F = Face – weakness on one sideA = Arms – weak or numbS = Speech – slurred or trouble talkingT = Time – call 911 now!!
51# 15ShockWhat is it?Life-threatening condition in which there is not enough blood being delivered to all parts of the bodyWhen can you get it?Can happen after a serious injury or illness including:severe bleedingSerious internal injuryBlood or body fluid lossWhat are the signs?Restlessness or irritabilityAltered level of consciousnessNausea or VomitingPale, ashen, cool, moist skinRapid breathing and pulseExcessive thirst
52How do you take care of someone in shock? Call 911Remain calmHave the person lie downControl any external bleedingCover with a blanketDO NOT give anything to eat or drinkReassure the personMonitor airway, breathing, and circulation
53Allergic Reaction Cause: Treatment: Drugs Medications Foods Chemicals CheckCallCareGive care for any life-threatening conditionEpinephrine auto-injector
54# 16Bites & StingsInsect StingsScrape away the stingerWash site with soap and waterCold pack to reduce painWatch for signs of an allergic reactionTick BitesRemove tick with tweezers as close to skin as possible and pull slowlyDO NOTBurn tick offApply petroleum jellyIf rash, flu-like sx, or joint pain seek medical careSevere reactions include: weakness, swelling of the face and neck, and difficulty breathing. If these signs are present… call 911
56Types of Muscle, Bone and Joint Injuries # 17Types of Muscle, Bone and Joint InjuriesFractures: break in boneOpen Fracture: skin over fracture brokenClosed Fracture: skin over fracture intactDislocation: displacement of a bone at the joint
57Sprain: partial or complete tearing or stretching of a ligament Strain: stretching or tearing of muscles or tendon fibers
58Care for Musculoskeletal System # 18Care for Musculoskeletal SystemThink RICE!RestIceCompressElevateRestImmobilizeColdElevate
59When do you call 911? Open fracture—you can see bone Cannot move or use the hurt part normally (for example, if the person cannot stand on his/her leg)Area is cold and numbInvolves the head, neck or spineTrouble breathing
60Splinting Definition: method of immobilizing Splint injury in position in which you find itSplint the injured area and the joints or bones above and below the injury siteCheck for circulationFeeling, warmth, and color
61Types of Splints Soft Splint Use of pillows, folded blankets, towels, & a slingRigid SplintIncludes boards, metal strips & folded magazines or newspapersUse a triangular bandageAnatomical SplintsUse uninjured body part as a splint to immobilize an injured area
62Anatomic Splint Get consent to treat Check circulation Position bandagesAlign body partsTie bandages securelyRecheck circulation
63Soft Splint Support injured part Wrap with soft object Check circulationPosition bandagesWrap with soft objectTie bandages securelyRecheck circulation
64# 19Hot or Cold Therapy?After an injury ice can be very beneficial. It can:Reduce bleeding within tissuesPrevent or reduce swellingReduce muscle spasmReduce pain by numbing the area and reducing swelling (which causes pain through pressure)Ice or cold packs should be applied for minutes every 2-3 hours. Be sure to protect the skin if you apply ice/cold packs to prevent an ice burn.Heat is beneficial when the injury is hours old, otherwise it can worsen the bleeding and inflammation.Heat can be applied in the form of:Deep heat creamsHeat padsHot water bottlesHeat works by dilating the blood vessels allowing more blood to the area which has a soothing effect. It eases pain and muscle spasms.
66Care for Injuries to the Head, Neck, or Back # 20Care for Injuries to the Head, Neck, or BackCall 911!These injuries may cause unintentional death or life-long neurological damageMinimize movement of the head, neck or backLeave victim in the position found inIf the head is turned sharply to one side, DO NOT try to align it. Support the head in the position you found it in.
67Concussions # 21 What are they? It is a type of traumatic brain injury that is caused by a blow to the head or body, a fall, or another injury that jars or shakes the brain inside the skull.SignalsLoss of balanceVision disturbancesNausea and vomitingDizzinessHeadache
68Brain injuries SIGNALS FOR BRAIN INJURIES: Changes in consciousness, such as confusion and excessive sleepinessSevere pain or pressure in the head, neck or backTingling or loss of feeling in the hands, fingers, feet or toesPartial or complete loss of movement of any body partBlood or other fluids draining from the ears or noseHeavy external bleeding of the head, neck or backSeizuresTrouble breathing or seeing as a result of the injuryNausea or vomitingLoss of balance (after the initial injury)Bruising of the head, especially around the eyes and behind the ears
69When Do I call 911?Suspect a serious head or spinal injury when the person:Says there is neck or back pain.Has tingling or weakness in the arms or legs.Is not fully alert.Staggers when trying to walk.Appears to be unexpectedly weak.Call
71Hypothermia # 22 What is it? When does it happen? When your body loses heat faster than it can produce it. Normal body temperature is around 98.6° F Hypothermia is when the body temperature passes below 95° F.When does it happen?When there is overexposure to cool temperatures, cold water, moisture, and/or wind.What happens to the victim?-shivers and feels cold-trouble speaking-tired-confused-pulse rate slows down and becomes irregular-can become unconscious and die if not treated
72Hypothermia Cont.What do you do? - call 911 ASAP - handle them carefully - try to get them to a warmer environment - remove wet clothing and put on dry clothing
73# 23frostbiteWhat is it?The freezing of body parts exposed to the cold.What to look for:-lack of feeling-skin swollen and waxy looking-skin cold to the touch-skin may be discolored-blisters may form-may turn black if severe
74Frostbite cont. Call 911 if severe! Until help arrives: handle the area gentlyremove wet clothing and jewelryif minor, you can rewarm the area using skin-to-skin contactWarm them up slowly!NEVER:rub the arearewarm the area if there is a chance it might refreeze or you are going to the hospitalgive ibuprofenbreak the blisters
75Heat-Related illnesses Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke and all caused by overexposure to heat, loss of fluids and electrolytes.Heat exhaustion is more severe than heat cramps. It affects, athletes, firefighters, construction works or factory workers most often.Signs: cool, moist, pale, ashen or flushed skin; headache;nausea;dizzine4ss; weakness; and exhaustionWhat do you do?- get them out of the heat - give cool liquids- loosen or remove clothes - let the person rest
76# 24HEAT STROKE: CALL 911!!!!!Least common, but most severe of heat related illnesses.Occurs when people ignore the warning signals of heat exhaustion.Watch for:- extremely high body temp- red skin that can be dry or moist- changes in consciousness - confusion- rapid or weak pulse- shallow breathing- vomiting- seizuresCool them off ASAP!