2Bites and StingsAlthough many bites are minor, some may break the skin.Wound can bleed and become infected from germsAnimals may carry rabies
3Action Make sure scene is safe.Get first aid kit. Wear PPE For animal bites, phone or send someone to phone 911Clean the wound with soap and waterStop any bleeding with pressure and dressingFor all bites that break the skin, call healthcare providerIf there is bruise or swelling, apply ice for up to 20 minutes.
4Snakebites It is helpful if you can identify the kind of snake Signs of poisonous snakebitesPain in the bite area that keeps getting worseSwelling of the bite areaNausea, vomiting, sweating and weakness
5Actions Make sure scene is safe.Get first aid kit. Wear PPE Clear the area and call 911 or have someone call 911Have victim stay calmRemove any tight clothing and jewelryGently wash bite with soap and water if available.
6Insect, Bee, and Spider Bites and Stings Usually insect and spider bites and stings cause only mild pain, itching, and swelling at the biteSome insect bites can be serious or fatal if:The person has severe allergic reaction to bite or stingPoison (Venom) is injected into the personBlack widow spider or brown recluse spider
8Actions Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE Phone or have someone call 911 if:The person has signs of severe allergic reactionPerson tells you that she has allergic reaction to insect bites or stingsGet EpiPenIf a bee stung the person:Look for the stinger. Bees are only insects that may leave stingers behindScrape away stinger and venom sac by using something with a dull edge such as a credit cardWash bite or sting area with soap and water if availableApply ice for up to 20 minutesWatch person for at least 30 minutes for signs of allergic reaction
10Signs of Poisonous Spider bite Severe pain at the site of biteMuscle crampsHeadacheFeverVomitingBreathing problemsSeizuresLack of response
11Ticks Ticks can be found on animals and in wooded areas They will attach themselves to exposed body partsSome ticks carry serious diseases
12Actions Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE Grab the tick by its mouth or head as close to skin as possible with tweezersLift tick straight out without twisting or squeezingWash bite with soap and water if availableSee healthcare provider ASAP
13Heat-Related Emergencies Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat StrokeMost heat related emergencies are caused by vigorous exerciseHeat cramps are painful muscle spasms most often in calves, arms, stomach muscles, and back.
14Actions Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE. Have person with heat cramps rest and cool offHave person drink something that contains sugar and electrolytes, such as juice or a sports drink, or water if others aren’t availableOnce heat cramp symptoms stop, person can return to exerciseIce, and massaging painful muscles may help
15Heat Exhaustion Serious condition that often turns into heat stroke Signs of heat exhaustion include: sweating, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, muscle cramps, feeling faint and fatigue
16Actions Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE. Phone or ask someone to call 911Have person lie down in cool placeRemove as much of persons clothing as possibleCool person with cool water spray, or damp cloths on neck, armpit, and groinHave person drink something that contains sugar, and electrolytes or water if others are avail.
17Heat StrokeSerious condition that looks similar to heat exhaustion but it is life threateningyou need to act quicklyBegin cooling person immediately. Every minute counts.Key signs of heat stroke:ConfusionPassing outDizzinessseizures
18Actions Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE. Phone or have someone call 911Put person in cool water up to her neck if possible if not cool water spray or cloths.See if person needs CPR.
19Cold-Related Emergencies FrostbiteAffects parts of the body that are exposed to cold or when handling cold materials such as gases under pressureHypothermiaWhen body temperature falls. Serious condition that can cause death.Shivering protects body by producing heat. Shiver stops when body becomes too cold.
20Frostbite Signs ACTIONS White waxy or grayish-yellow skin Area is cold and numbArea is hard, skin doesn’t move when you push itACTIONSMove person to warm placeCall or have someone call 911Remove tight clothing and jewelry from frostbitten partRemove wet clothing and pat the body dry. Put dry clothes on person and cover with blanket
21Hypothermia Signs As body temp. continues to drop: Skin is cool to the touchConfusion or drowsinessPersonality change/person may be unconcerned about conditionMuscles become stiff and rigid, skin becomes ice cold and blueAs body temp. continues to drop:Person stops respondingPersons breathing slowsMay be hard to tell if person is breathingPerson may appear to be dead
22Actions for Hypothermia Get person out of coldRemove wet clothing and pat body dry. Put dry clothes on the person and cover with blanketCall or have someone call 911See if the person needs CPR
23PoisonPoison is anything someone swallows, breathes, or gets in the eyes or on the skin that causes sickness or death.Most important step is to make sure scene is safe before giving first aid.
24Actions Make sure scene is safe.Get first aid kit. Wear PPE Help the person take off contaminated clothing and jewelryQuickly help the person to a safety shower or eyewash station if he responds and can move.Brush off any dry powder or solid substances from the skin with your gloved hand.Rinse the contaminated area with a lot of water for at least 20 minutes or until someone with more training can take overIf only one eye is affected make sure the eye with the poison in it, is the lower eye you rinse.