Presentation on theme: "ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCIES Unit 4. Bites and Stings Although many bites are minor, some may break the skin. Wound can bleed and become infected from."— Presentation transcript:
ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCIES Unit 4
Bites and Stings Although many bites are minor, some may break the skin. Wound can bleed and become infected from germs Animals may carry rabies
Action Make sure scene is safe.Get first aid kit. Wear PPE For animal bites, phone or send someone to phone 911 Clean the wound with soap and water Stop any bleeding with pressure and dressing For all bites that break the skin, call healthcare provider If there is bruise or swelling, apply ice for up to 20 minutes.
Snakebites It is helpful if you can identify the kind of snake Signs of poisonous snakebites Pain in the bite area that keeps getting worse Swelling of the bite area Nausea, vomiting, sweating and weakness
Actions Make sure scene is safe.Get first aid kit. Wear PPE Clear the area and call 911 or have someone call 911 Have victim stay calm Remove any tight clothing and jewelry Gently wash bite with soap and water if available.
Insect, Bee, and Spider Bites and Stings Usually insect and spider bites and stings cause only mild pain, itching, and swelling at the bite Some insect bites can be serious or fatal if: The person has severe allergic reaction to bite or sting Poison (Venom) is injected into the person Black widow spider or brown recluse spider
Actions Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE Phone or have someone call 911 if: The person has signs of severe allergic reaction Person tells you that she has allergic reaction to insect bites or stings Get EpiPen If a bee stung the person: Look for the stinger. Bees are only insects that may leave stingers behind Scrape away stinger and venom sac by using something with a dull edge such as a credit card Wash bite or sting area with soap and water if available Apply ice for up to 20 minutes Watch person for at least 30 minutes for signs of allergic reaction
Bee Stinger and Venom Sac
Signs of Poisonous Spider bite Severe pain at the site of bite Muscle cramps Headache Fever Vomiting Breathing problems Seizures Lack of response
Ticks Ticks can be found on animals and in wooded areas They will attach themselves to exposed body parts Some ticks carry serious diseases
Actions Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE Grab the tick by its mouth or head as close to skin as possible with tweezers Lift tick straight out without twisting or squeezing Wash bite with soap and water if available See healthcare provider ASAP
Heat-Related Emergencies Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke Most heat related emergencies are caused by vigorous exercise Heat cramps are painful muscle spasms most often in calves, arms, stomach muscles, and back.
Actions Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE. Have person with heat cramps rest and cool off Have person drink something that contains sugar and electrolytes, such as juice or a sports drink, or water if others aren’t available Once heat cramp symptoms stop, person can return to exercise Ice, and massaging painful muscles may help
Heat Exhaustion Serious condition that often turns into heat stroke Signs of heat exhaustion include: sweating, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, muscle cramps, feeling faint and fatigue
Actions Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE. Phone or ask someone to call 911 Have person lie down in cool place Remove as much of persons clothing as possible Cool person with cool water spray, or damp cloths on neck, armpit, and groin Have person drink something that contains sugar, and electrolytes or water if others are avail.
Heat Stroke Serious condition that looks similar to heat exhaustion but it is life threatening you need to act quickly Begin cooling person immediately. Every minute counts. Key signs of heat stroke: Confusion Passing out Dizziness seizures
Actions Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE. Phone or have someone call 911 Put person in cool water up to her neck if possible if not cool water spray or cloths. See if person needs CPR.
Cold-Related Emergencies Frostbite Affects parts of the body that are exposed to cold or when handling cold materials such as gases under pressure Hypothermia When body temperature falls. Serious condition that can cause death. Shivering protects body by producing heat. Shiver stops when body becomes too cold.
Frostbite Signs White waxy or grayish-yellow skin Area is cold and numb Area is hard, skin doesn’t move when you push it ACTIONS Move person to warm place Call or have someone call 911 Remove tight clothing and jewelry from frostbitten part Remove wet clothing and pat the body dry. Put dry clothes on person and cover with blanket
Hypothermia Signs Skin is cool to the touch Confusion or drowsiness Personality change/person may be unconcerned about condition Muscles become stiff and rigid, skin becomes ice cold and blue As body temp. continues to drop: Person stops responding Persons breathing slows May be hard to tell if person is breathing Person may appear to be dead
Actions for Hypothermia Get person out of cold Remove wet clothing and pat body dry. Put dry clothes on the person and cover with blanket Call or have someone call 911 See if the person needs CPR
Poison Poison is anything someone swallows, breathes, or gets in the eyes or on the skin that causes sickness or death. Most important step is to make sure scene is safe before giving first aid.
Actions Make sure scene is safe.Get first aid kit. Wear PPE Help the person take off contaminated clothing and jewelry Quickly help the person to a safety shower or eyewash station if he responds and can move. Brush off any dry powder or solid substances from the skin with your gloved hand. Rinse the contaminated area with a lot of water for at least 20 minutes or until someone with more training can take over If only one eye is affected make sure the eye with the poison in it, is the lower eye you rinse.