H EAT -R ELATED I LLNESS Three forms of Illnesses: 1. Heat Cramps 2. Heat Exhaustion 3. Heat Stroke
H EAT C RAMPS Painful muscle spasms. Usually in the legs and abdomen. Care for Heat Cramps Move the person to a cool place Give cool water to drink Lightly stretch the muscle and gently massage the area
H EAT E XHAUSTION Cool, moist, pale, ashen or flushed skin; headache; nausea; dizziness; weakness; and exhaustion. Care for Heat Exhaustion Move the person to a cool environment Loosen or remove clothing Fan the person If person is conscious, give small amount of cool water to drink.
H EAT S TROKE Most Severe Mostly happens when people ignore the signals for heat exhaustion. Body system is overwhelmed by heat and begin to stop functioning. Serious medical emergency Red skin, changes in consciousness; rapid, weak pulse; and rapid, shallow breathing.
H EAT S TROKE Care for Heat Stroke Call 9-1-1 Give care until help arrives by following the care steps for heat exhaustion.
F ROSTBITE Freezing of body parts exposed to the cold. Can cause the loss of fingers, hands, arms, toes, feet and legs. Lack of feeling, skin appears waxy, is cold to the touch or is discolored. Care for Frostbite Soak in warm water Do not rewarm area if there is a danger of it refreezing. Remove wet clothing and jewelry from area.
H YPOTHERMIA Entire body cools because ability to keep warm fails. Person will die if not given care. Shivering, numbness, glassy stare. Care for Hypothermia Move to warm place Warm person slowly Remove wet clothing
C HECK OUT THE S ITUATION Make sure you’re safe. If you’re not sure you’re safe, leave the area. If someone is hurt, try to find out what’s wrong. Stay calm, and don’t panic.
C ALL FOR H ELP Yell for help, or use the phone to call for emergency services.
C ARE FOR THE V ICTIM Give the victim First Aid Emergency medical care for someone who has been hurt or who is sick.
F IRST A ID FOR C HOKING I NFANT 1. Put the infant face up on your forearm. Place your other arm over the infant, and hold their jaw. Turn infant over.
F IRST A ID FOR C HOKING I NFANT 2. Supports your arm on your thigh or knee so the infant’s head is lower than their chest. Give the infant five firm back blows with the heel of your hand.
F IRST A ID FOR C HOKING I NFANT 3. If the object doesn’t come loose, turn the infant over. Place two fingers on the infants breastbone, between and just below the infant’s nipples. Push the breastbone in five times.
F IRST A ID FOR C HOKING I NFANT Repeat back blows and chest thrusts until the object comes loose.
C HOKING AND CPR Abdominal thrusts (Heimlich Maneuver) Actions that apply pressure to a choking person’s stomach to force an object out of the throat. Make sure the victim is actually choking If victim can cough or speak, he or she can still breathe. Let them clear their throat. If the victim cannot cough or speak, give abdominal thrusts.
A BDOMINAL THRUSTS 1. Stand or kneel behind the victim. Wrap your arms around the victim. 2. Form a fist. Place the thumb side of your fist on the victims stomach, above the belly button and below the breastbone.
A BDOMINAL THRUSTS 3. Cover your fist with our other hand. Give five quick upward thrusts into the victims stomach. 4. Repeat abdominal thrusts until the object comes loose.