5Calling for Help 911 Who to call when you face a first aid emergency. Local policeFire departmentPoison controlFamily doctorParentsNeighborRelatives
6Giving first aid does have some risk: You may be exposed to:BloodSalivaOther body fluids*These fluids might contain bacteriaand viruses that can make you sick.
7Protecting yourself What should you use to protect yourself? Latex GlovesBreathing barrier (CPR Mask)If you do not protect yourself, you risk obtaining an infection.If you have exposure to a body fluid, wash immediately after the exposure with soap and water.
8Basic First Aid Bleeding: Simple cuts and scrapes, wash with soap and water immediately and use antibiotic cream and a bandage.Severe bleeding, use sterile gauze or a clean cloth and apply direct pressure to the injury to stop bleeding. If bleeding is very severe, call for help or go to the ER.
9Poisoning: Call 911 and Poison Control Simple household items can cause poisoning.Cleaning products, automobile fluids, as well as some medicines.Poisons can enter the body through the mouth, skin, lungs, or through an injection into the body.Different poisons cause different reactions and are cared for differently. Knowing what the victim has ingested is important.
13BurnsCaused by the sun, fire, hot objects, hot liquids, electricity, and chemicals.Care:First Degree:A mild burn (minor sunburn or touching a hot object) which results in redness of the skin.Treatment: Run cool water on the area, care for as a small cut. Call the doctor if the burn is large.
14Burns: Second Degree: Third Degree: Affects the inner layer of the skin and cause blisters.Treatment: Run cool water over and apply cold compress on the area. Cover with sterile dressing and seek medical help.Third Degree:Affects all three layers of skin (muscle and bone may be affected as well) May not hurt if pain receptors are damaged.Treatment: Call 911 right away. Make sure victim is no longer exposed to flame, heat, or smoke. DO NOT remove burned clothing stuck to skin. Cover with a sterile bandage or clean cloth.
15Electrical ShockThe human body conducts electricity. The shock occurs when electricity is passed through the body. The shock can cause the heart to stop, cause internal as well as external injuries/burns.Before you touch the victim, make sure that they are no longer in contact with the electrical source.Call for help, provide first aid until EMS arrives.
16Fractures & Dislocations: Fracture- a broken or cracked bone.Dislocation- an injury in which the bone has been forced from its normal position in its joint.Care: try not to move the injured area for fear of further injury. For a dislocation do not try to put the bone back. Moving either injury can result in further damage. Go to the ER or call for help.
17Head and Back Injuries: Can be very serious or deadly. Can cause partial or full paralysis.Care: DO NOT MOVE THE VICTIM. If the victim is awake, tell them not to move. Call 911.Moving a victim with a head or back injury can make the injury worse, possible paralysis or death.
19Shock: Shock- The body’s response to reduced blood flow. Many injuries may cause reduced blood flow.Symptoms: pale skin, cool or clammy, weak heart rate, lightheaded, slow and shallow breathing.Call for help and try to keep victim alert.Lie the victim down and elevate their legs 12” above their head.(If there is a suspected head/back injury don’t move them)
20Choking: Choking – occurs when a person’s airway is blocked and they CANNOT cough, speak or breathe.
21Choking:Abdominal thrusts: actions that apply pressure to a choking person’s abdomen to force the object out of the throat.DO NOT perform abdominal thrusts on someone that cancough, speak or breathe!
22CPRCardiopulmonary Resuscitation- an emergency technique used to save a victim that isn’t breathing and who doesn’t have a heartbeat.CPR starts with Rescue Breathing: an emergency technique in which the rescuer gives air to someone who is not breathing.CPR also uses chest compressions in order to help the blood flow when the heart has stopped.
23Steps for CPRABC’sA: Airway: Make sure the airway is clear and open. If not, you cannot move air into the victim’s lungs.B: Breathing: Is the victim breathing? Look and feel for movement/breathing. Watch the chest as you put your face near the victim’s mouth.C: Circulation: Is the victim’s heart beating? Check it by looking for signs of life like movement or breathing.
243 Basic Emergency Action Steps CHECK the scene and the person CALL 911 or local emergency number CARE for the person
25Homework Questions: Due Monday 2/6 Directions: Write out each question and then respond in complete sentences.1. Explain what first aid care is.2. Why is it important to make sure the scene is safe before administering first aid?3. What are 3 numbers that you can call when faced with an emergency situation?4. When administering first aid, what could the caregiver be exposed to? Why can thisbe dangerous?5. How can you protect yourself when administering first aid to someone who isbleeding?6. Explain the treatment for severe bleeding.7. What are some ways that poisons can enter the body? What are 3 examples ofpoisons?8. Explain why it is important to know what type of poison the victim ingested.9. What treatment is used to treat both a first and second degree burn?10. What is the treatment for a third degree burn?11. Why is it extremely important to NOT move a victim with a possible head or neckinjury?12. What is shock and how can it occur?
26Homework Questions continued: 13. How can you tell if someone is choking? (Describe the 4 signs)14. List and explain the 3 basic emergency steps .15. List and explain the A B C’s of CPR.