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English Civil War By Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School.

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1 English Civil War By Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School

2 When Elizabeth came to power, she had to share power with Parliament Parliament will gain more power under Elizabeth She saw Parliament as an integral part of English Politics 1603: Elizabeth dies, Parliament attempts to gain more power over national policy this attempt for more power will lead to a major conflict between the crown and Parliament-- erupting into a Civil War

3 Opposition to the Crown After Elizabeth comes James VI of Scotland--he becomes James I of England James starts a new English dynasty--Stuart by 1603, he is already king in Scotland soon after his coronation, James and Parliament begin to have problems James was not a good judge of people or situations he was used to working with the very weak Scottish Parliament

4 James I

5 James was not ready to handle the powerful English Parliament James believed in divine right of kings-- that he received all of his power directly from God this belief in the divine right of kings will worsen the relationship between the crown and Parliament

6 James will be somewhat dependent on Parliament- -he keeps asking them for $ James was not money wise--he kept spending $ on himself and the government (parties, etc.) James kept asking Parliament for $, but Parliament refused to give him all that he asked for in order to get all the $ he needed, James began selling titles of nobility

7 Parliament and James differed over his foreign policy Parliament becomes very upset when James ends the war with Spain--the peace treaty ending the war placed England into debt

8 James will infuriate Parliament again by attempting to arrange a marriage for his son Charles James wanted his son to marry a Spanish (Catholic) princess Parliament feared that this marriage may bring Catholicism back to England Luckily for Parliament, the marriage plans did not carry through

9 Religion was still playing a large part in the politics of England most people in England belonged to the Church of England people in the Church of England still questioned the doctrine and rituals of the Church of England the Puritans will be a group that oppose the doctrine and ritual of the Church of England –they wanted to get rid of all remaining Catholic ritual in the church –Puritans in Parliament also wanted to purify the church

10 When James became king, the Puritans in Parliament asked James to sign a petition to make Puritan reforms--getting rid of Catholic ritual--in the Church of England James will reject this petition James told the Puritans to either conform to the Church of England or he would force them out of England

11 Charles I Inherits the Throne 1625: James I dies leaving his son Charles to take over the throne Charles will inherit the problems that his father also had Charles did not like the Puritans and also believed in divine right of kings Charles also marries a Catholic--Henrietta Maria--the King of France’s sister

12 Charles I

13 Henrietta Maria

14 Charles will eventually go to Parliament asking for $ to fight a war against France and Spain Parliament gives him some, but not all that he had asked for Charles dissolves--breaks up--Parliament because they did not give him all of the $ he then will try to raise $ without Parliament –he tries to force landowners to give him $, but they refused –those that refused the king, however, were placed in prison –many in England become upset with Charles’ actions

15 Charles will also upset people when he demands that his troops be boarded in peoples’ homes-- billet Charles declares martial law--military rule--in many parts of England –in these places, the people lost their rights 1628: Charles recalls Parliament into session by 1628, Charles had already engaged in wars with both France and Spain

16 This recalled Parliament has decided that they want to limit Charles’ power Petition of RightParliament agreed to raise taxes for Charles’ wars if Charles signed the Petition of Right

17 Petition of Right 1.) the king could not collect taxes or force loans without Parliament’s consent 2.) the king could not imprison anyone without just cause 3.) troops could not be housed in a private home against the will of the owner 4.) the king could not declare marital law unless England was at war

18 Charles will sign the Petition of Right, but Charles’ behavior will remained unchanged nearly 1 year after he had signed the PoR, he again disbands Parliament and vowed never to recall Parliament back into session for the next 11 years, Charles rules over England without Parliament Charles collected his own taxes and imprisoned his enemies--direct violations of the Petition of Right

19 At this same time, Charles is also causing problems with England’s religion he appoints a new Archbishop of Canterbury-- William Laud Charles and Laud will persecute the Puritans, denying the Puritans the rights to preach or publish their works Both Charles and Laud will burn Puritan works and publicly whip many Puritans Many Puritans will flee England and come to the English colonies looking for religious freedom

20 William Laud

21 Between 1630 and 1643, hundred of Puritans came to the Americas--Great Migration most Puritans did not leave England but stayed to fight against Charles

22 Charles and Laud also began looking into the religious realm of Scotland they both wanted to establish the Church of England in Scotland they tried to force the Calvinist Church of Scotland to accept the Church of England’s prayer book the Scots will deny the prayer book and pledge their religious freedom the Scots are ready for war

23 Beginnings of Civil War In the early 1640’s, Scotland will invade England to defend England, Charles needed $ to get $, Charles will recall Parliament after it had been dissolved for over 11 years Parliament refused to talk about $ until they had finished complaining about Charles Short ParliamentCharles wanted nothing to do with the complaining and will again dissolve Parliament after only 3 weeks--Short Parliament

24 Charles still needed $ and will recall Parliament one more time members of Parliament wanted their complaints to be heard Parliament will be mostly controlled by Puritans this Parliament will stay in session for a very long time (20 years) and will be called the Long Parliament the Long Parliament was determined to decrease Charles’ power

25 Charles’ special courts were eliminated by the Long Parliament the Parliamentary members pass laws requiring Parliament to be called every three (3) years illegal taxation was ended the Long Parliament will imprison Archbishop Laud and eventually execute him

26 With all of the problems already occurring in England, more problems will arise with Ireland since the 1100’s, relations between England and Ireland had been bad Ireland was Catholic and refused to accept the Church of England the Irish were upset over England’s taking of Irish land and giving it to Scotland 1641: the Irish rebel against the English Charles now had a major dilemma--both Ireland and Scotland were rebelling against him

27 Charles now needed the Puritan Parliament’s help however, Parliament began to split into 2 distinct groups the Puritans in Parliament were against the king the Royalist supported the king and opposed Puritan control over the Church of England

28 1642: Parliament created the “Nineteen Propositions” these propositions were designed to make Parliament the supreme power in England Charles, however, refused to follow the propositions Charles led troops into the House of Commons and attempted to arrest 5 Parliamentary leaders Charles’ show of force meant that war between the crown and Parliament was drawing very near Both sides begin to prepare for war

29 English Civil War Charles created an army composed of nobles and landowners from the north and west of England –these were called Cavaliers –mostly cavalry and horsemen the Puritans of Parliament gathered their military from the south and east of England –these people were called Roundheads

30 The leader of the Roundheads--Oliver Cromwell Cromwell was a very religious man and good military leader he led the Roundheads to many victories in the English civil war May,1646: the royalist forces--Cavaliers-- surrendered to the Puritans Parliament will now have complete control over English government

31 Those Parliamentary members who opposed the Puritans were removed the Puritan Parliament that was left behind was called the Rump Parliament Charles did not surrender until 1647 Charles will be put on trial and be executed his execution shocked the English people

32 New Government With the king now gone, Parliament attempts to create Republican form of government England will be declared a commonwealth- -a state governed by elected representatives Parliament argued over reforms and did not hold new elections

33 1653: Oliver Cromwell took over Parliament by force –Cromwell had been gaining lots of power and influence because of his fighting in Ireland and Scotland Cromwell names himself Lord Protector and dismissed the Rump Parliament for 5 years, Cromwell will rule over England as a military dictator

34 Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector to England

35 Cromwell forced very strict rules on the English people dancing, swearing, and gambling were outlawed in England swearing and missing church were punishable by fines

36 1658: Cromwell dies leaving his son, Richard, to take over England Richard was not like his father he was forced to resign the people of England had become frustrated with the constantly changing government, tired of military rule and civil war, and unhappy with Puritan restrictions the military government eventually recalled the Long Parliament to negotiate with Charles’ I son who had been living in France

37 Parliament seemed ready to reinstate the monarchy however, the ideas of a representative government and individual rights would remain part of the English government no monarch will have absolute power in England again

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