Presentation on theme: "BRITISH AND AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS Chapter 20. Elizabeth I Recognized the importance of the good will of the people – and of parliament. She once said."— Presentation transcript:
BRITISH AND AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS Chapter 20
Elizabeth I Recognized the importance of the good will of the people – and of parliament. She once said “Though God has raised me high, yet this I account the glory of the crown, that I have reigned with your loves.” Died in 1603 without an heir
James I The son of Elizabeth’s first cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots Also King of Scotland while assumed throne of England. Was an well educated man, but was a poor judge of people and political situations (unlike Elizabeth) He was not used to the strong presence of parliament which created a series of conflicts
Divine Right of Kings Believed that king derives power directly from God and such power is absolute. “Kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God himself they are called Gods... I will not be content that my power be disputed on.”
Conflicts with Parliament Constant conflicts Asking for money Spent huge sums on himself and his advisors for luxury items Resorted to collecting money by selling titles to the nobility Wiki Wiki
Religion and Monarchy Most English people members of Church of England Strong opposition from the Puritans. Called upon the church to reform. Petitioned James I but rejected and forced to conform to the Church of England
Political Environment Oppositional 1. Conflicts between the the crown and parliament 2. Conflicts from the people because of religion 3. The people had grown accustom to Elizabeth’s concern to the people - She ruled with benevolence (- organized for the purpose of doing good).
Charles I Son of James I – inherits 1625 after father’s death. Ruled with same “divine right of kings” attitude which created the same political environment as his father Also had problems with parliament Asked for money to finance a war with Spain but parliament rejected Raised money by forcing landowners to give the government “loans” or the king would put them in jail.
Petition of Right People outraged by king’s behaviour Also angry because Charles demanded the people lodge troops into private homes. Parliament sought changes offered approval of additional taxes to support the war (as the king wished) but he would have to sign the Petition of Right which severely limited his power
Limited power Forbidden to collect taxes or force loans Not allowed to imprison without just cause Troops could not be housed in a private home against the will of the owner Not declare martial law unless country was at war.
Dissolved Parliament signed the petition but refused to follow Instead dissolved parliament and didn’t call upon them for 11 years Continued to collect taxes and imprison opponents
Deepened the Religious Q Named William Laud to be Archbishop, the leading official of the Church of England. Began persecution of Puritans Denied them the right to preach or publish Some were punished through public whippings Great Migration – exodus from England 1630 – 1643 Spread attention to Scotland – Tried to force the Calvinist Church of Scotland to accept the England’s prayer book. Rejected and formed the National Convenant that vowed to preserve their religious freedom Prepared to go to war
Civil War begins Growing political unrest + denying religious freedoms (which angered the masses) = civil war By 1640, Scots invaded England in need of money. Forces Charles I to recall parliament (first time in 11 years) Ireland specifically, was tired of the English taking their land and giving it to English and Scottish settlers. The Irish rebelled. Charles found himself in a pickle of situation, with both Ireland and Scotland rebelling and constant conflict with the Puritan-controlled Parliament.
Royalist As Puritans gained control in Parliament, a royalist or pro-monarchy group formed in Parliament. This group was made up of people who supported the king and opposed Puritan control of the Church of England. Despite resistance from this group, Parliament sent Charles “Nineteen Propositions”
Civil War Cavaliers - King’s army, also included nobles and landowners. Mostly belonged to the north and west of the country. Roundheads- Drew their strength from the south and east of England. Many of them had close-cropped hair. Parliament organized its military forces under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell. Religios, brilliant military leader, led severel decisive victories After four years of conflict, the king surrendered (1647). He was given tried, sentenced and executed.
A new government Declared a commonwealth state, governed by a elected representatives. But parliament refused to hold new elections. Meanwhile, Cromwell continued to gain power as he crushed the Irish and Scottish rebellions. Cromwell was tired of waiting for reform from the parliament, so he took parliament himself. This lasted five years, as a military dictator. He enforced strict Puritan rules. After his death, his son Richard took over, but lacked his father’s leadership.
Reformed Monarchy People were tired of the constant change in government. Didn’t want civil wars, military dictators and unhappy Puritan restrictions. Parliament reestablished the monarchy, BUT the idea of representative government would survive. A king would still rule England, but no king would have absolute power again.
Hmmm….? Group discussion What might start a revolution today?