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FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661.

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Presentation on theme: "FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661."— Presentation transcript:

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2 FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Bank of Eng. (f.1694) repays loans w/interest Faith in gov.  Invest in Bank  Helps econ. Spreads across globe (FC. 116) Indus. Rev. in Eng. (FC. 111) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

3 1700 France England Dutch Republic Austria 1650 Louis XIII dies & Mazarin’s Regency begins (1643) Mazarin dies & Louis XIV begins his active reign (1661) Glorious Revolution (1688) Eng. Civ. Wars begin (1642) Cromwell’s dictatorship ( ) Plague hits London (1665) 30 Yrs. War ends (1648) James II Begins reign (1685) Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes (1685) Louis XIV dies (1715) 1st Anglo Dutch- Naval War (1652-4) 2nd Anglo-Dutch Naval War (1665-7) 3rd Anglo- Dutch Naval War (1672-4) Dutch War ) Fronde ( ) Stuart monarchy restored (1661) London Fire (1666) Russia Peter the Great dies (1725) War of Sp. Succession ( ) Great N.War vs. Sweden ( ) “Time of Troubles” ( ) Prussia Fred-Wm The Great Elector Starts his reign (1640) Fred-Wm the Great Elector Dies (1688) N. War b/w Sweden, Prussia & Poland ( ) Peter I’s Great Embassy (1697) Eng. Civ. Wars end (1648) War of Sp. Succession ( ) War of League of Augsburg ( ) War of League of Augsburg ( ) War of League of Augsburg ( ) War of Holy League ends (1699) 30 Yrs. War ends (1648) Dutch indep. (1648) William III Marries Mary Stuart (1674) Turks besiege Vienna & start of War of Holy League vs. Turks (1683)

4 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B)

5 General George Monk who led the way in restoring the monarchy in 1660

6 FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Monarchy of Charles II ( ), What was he like? a

7 Charles II’s coronation procession upon his recall to England by Parliament in 1661

8 Charles II ( )

9 Some of “Charlie’s Angels” including the most scandalous of them, the actress Nell Gwynn (guess which one), who referred to the king as “my Charles the Third.” The king’s scandalous personal life created difficulties in terms of his public image and the ability of others, especially Louis XIV, to control him through his mistresses. A more decent portrait of the fabulous Ms. Gwyn

10 Restoration theater drew heavily upon French influence, largely because the royal family had spent two decades in exile there. In addition to the neo-classic tragedies of Racine and Corneille, the comedies of Moliere were copied and imitated. Other French influences included the introduction of stage machinery (for seventeenth century “special effects”) and actresses onto British stages. (The first use of French actresses in London in 1629 aroused great indignation, but may have also paved the way for their later acceptance.) Women were also breaking into the ranks of playwrights, notably Madame Scudéry and the Countess de la Fayette in France who wrote semi-historical romances. Following in their footsteps in England were equally successful women: Mrs. Aphra Behn, Mrs. Manly, and Mrs. Susannah Centlivre, the last of whom successfully adapted a number of French plays into English.

11 Restoration comedy drew heavily on the comedies of manners made popular by Moliere in France, using fairly stock characters: smooth sophisticated men about town, frail and beautiful women for them to court, dim-witted husbands and fathers for them to fool, and various minor characters, such as gossipy neighbors and clever servants, to fill out the cast. Plots were fairly predictable, often with unlikely coincidences to resolve the plot at the last minute, much as in the New Greek Comedy of Menander and copied by the Romans Plautus and Terence.

12 London during the time of Charles II

13 London Bridge

14 The 1660s were a bad decade for Britain, starting with the Dutch victory over the British in the Four Days Battle (1664) where 8000 English sailors died, many in burning ships. After that came the Black Death (1665), the Great Fire of London (1666) and a humiliating raid by the Dutch fleet into the middle of English waters. Many people blamed these disasters on the king’s immoral behavior and suspicions that he was secretly Catholic. (He was.)

15 The Black Death Returns (1665)

16 In 1665 the last major outbreak of plague in England hit London, and “Bring out your dead” became more than a line from a Monty Python movie. Because of the large numbers of victims, they were buried in common pits.

17 The Plague first reappeared in London in May As usual it started with a few deaths, which quickly generated panic, as everyone knew how bad it could be.

18 Deaths from the Plague quickly skyrocketed through the summer when garbage and filth fester, allowing fleas and rats to multiply.

19 Except for those rich enough to leave town and the plague behind, the best option was the quarantine, which involved boarding up windows & padlocking doors of any house where there was a sick person.

20 Guards outside kept the whole family confined indoors until 28 days after the last signs of the plague had passed, at which time all the clothes and bedding of the victims would be burned.

21 Except for those rich enough to leave town and the plague behind, the best option was the quarantine, which involved boarding up windows & padlocking doors of any house where there was a sick person. Guards outside kept the whole family confined indoors until 28 days after the last signs of the plague had passed, at which time all the clothes and bedding of the victims would be burned. Only doctors and those bringing in food or taking out the dead were allowed through, and they had to carry red sticks to indicate they had contact with plague victims.

22 Except for those rich enough to leave town and the plague behind, the best option was the quarantine, which involved boarding up windows & padlocking doors of any house where there was a sick person. Guards outside kept the whole family confined indoors until 28 days after the last signs of the plague had passed, at which time all the clothes and bedding of the victims would be burned. Only doctors and those bringing in food or taking out the dead were allowed through, and they had to carry red sticks to indicate they had contact with plague victims. Families would go to great lengths to avoid being quarantined, such as bribing officials to record deaths as coming from diseases other than plague or helping their children to escape, as in Frank Topham’s painting on the left, "Rescued from the Plague, London 1665".

23 Proposed cures for the plague Carry a lucky charm to ward off the disease.

24 Proposed cures for the plague Carry a lucky charm to ward off the disease. Leeches to bleed victims & remove infected blood.

25 Proposed cures for the plague Carry a lucky charm to ward off the disease. Leeches to bleed victims & remove infected blood. Smoke a pipe of tobacco The smoke would ward off the disease.

26 Proposed cures for the plague Carry a lucky charm to ward off the disease. Leeches to bleed victims & remove infected blood. Smoke a pipe of tobacco The smoke would ward off the disease Give a strong dose of laxatives, causing the victim to completely empty his bowels, thus removing the disease. However, strong doses of laxatives can cause death from dehydration.

27 Proposed cures for the plague Carry a lucky charm to ward off the disease. Leeches to bleed victims & remove infected blood. Smoke a pipe of tobacco The smoke would ward off the disease Give a strong dose of laxatives, causing the victim to completely empty his bowels, thus removing the disease. However, strong doses of laxatives can cause death from dehydration. Coating the victims with mercury and placing them in an oven to kill off the disease. Unfortunately, either of these could more readily kill the patient.

28 Proposed cures for the plague Carry a lucky charm to ward off the disease. Leeches to bleed victims & remove infected blood. Smoke a pipe of tobacco The smoke would ward off the disease Give a strong dose of laxatives, causing the victim to completely empty his bowels, thus removing the disease. However, strong doses of laxatives can cause death from dehydration. Coating the victims with mercury and placing them in an oven to kill off the disease. Unfortunately, either of these could more readily kill the patient. Bathing in urine, which would keep other people, including those infected with plague away.

29 Proposed cures for the plague Carry a lucky charm to ward off the disease. Leeches to bleed victims & remove infected blood. Smoke a pipe of tobacco The smoke would ward off the disease Give a strong dose of laxatives, causing the victim to completely empty his bowels, thus removing the disease. However, strong doses of laxatives can cause death from dehydration. Coating the victims with mercury and placing them in an oven to kill off the disease. Unfortunately, either of these could more readily kill the patient. Bathing in urine, which would keep other people, including those infected with plague away. Left: a doctor’s robe. The beak was meant to act as a filter, being filled with perfumes & alleged disinfectants. The lenses were supposed to protect the eyes from the plague’s poisonous emanations.

30 "Everyday looks with the face of a Sabbath Day. Now shops are shut in, people rare & very few that walk about, in so much that the grass begins to spring in some places & a deep silence in almost every place, especially within the walls; no rattling coaches, no cries sounding in the ears." **

31 During the plague in London, efforts were made to round up all the stray dogs and cats, thinking they might have something to do with the plague. However, rats were overlooked. Below: Modern re-enactment of two really cute kitties playing during the plague in London in 1665, oblivious to the human suffering all around them.

32 Except for this poor kitty who was left out of the fun.

33 Here we see a re-enactment of the round-up of cats and dogs, with the stork representing Royal power & the “long beak of the law”.

34 Paintings of women picking fleas off their bodies, indicative of how ubiquitous fleas were in meideva & early modern Europe.

35 Below: the Black Death in Marseilles, This was the last major outbreak of Bubonic Plague in Europe. Very likely, a less deadly strain had evolved that didn’t kill its host and force it to find a new host. The more deadly strain killed off all its hosts and reached a dead end, leaving the less deadly strain, which is still with us. One could look at humans, like microbes, as a parasite on their host (i.e., our good friend, planet Earth). Like microbes, we only become a disease if we are harmful or deadly to our host.

36 When it finally subsided in December, 1666, the plague had killed an estimated 70,000 people in London. But another major disaster was just around the corner: fire.

37 The Great Fire of London (Sept. 1-4, 1666)

38 The Great Fire of London began close to warehouses full of combustible materials (brandy, tar, oil, butter, wine). Making matters worse, summer had been exceptionally dry and the fire started on the east side of town with a strong easterly to spread it across the city. Below: a map of London with concentric arcs showing the spread of the fire, mainly westward because of strong easterly winds blowing then.

39 It started when the king's baker was awakened by smoke. Finding their escape blocked, he & his wife climbed to the roof & leapt to the next one. Unfortunately, his wife missed & fell to her death in the flames below, the first of only six fatalities from the Great Fire of London.

40 The lord mayor, hung over from last night’s parties, was slow to realize the seriousness of the fire & organize bucket brigades to fight it. By the time he did, the fire was too intense & widespread to combat. Soon one-third of the buildings on London Bridge were in flames.

41 Down below in the river were refugees floating to safety downstream with whatever goods they could salvage.

42 Since the Lord mayor was so ineffective, King Charles took charge, ordering men to tear down buildings in the fire's path, even blowing them up with gunpowder. However, the fire was spreading too quickly even for that.

43 Everywhere there was the the sound of women & children shrieking, roaring flames, people pleading with officials not to destroy their homes, and the thunder of buildings crashing to the ground.

44 Since the Lord mayor was so ineffective, King Charles took charge, ordering men to tear down buildings in the fire's path, even blowing them up with gunpowder. However, the fire was spreading too quickly even for that. Everywhere there was the the sound of women & children shrieking, roaring flames, people pleading with officials not to destroy their homes, and the thunder of buildings crashing to the ground. In the midst of it all was the king who took part in bucket brigades & passed money out to fire fighters, thus reviving his public image somewhat.

45 Since the Lord mayor was so ineffective, King Charles took charge, ordering men to tear down buildings in the fire's path, even blowing them up with gunpowder. However, the fire was spreading too quickly even for that. Everywhere there was the the sound of women & children shrieking, roaring flames, people pleading with officials not to destroy their homes, and the thunder of buildings crashing to the ground. In the midst of it all was the king who took part in bucket brigades & passed money out to fire fighters, thus reviving his public image somewhat. Adding to the panic were rumors the Dutch had set the fire & were sailing up the Thames to attack.

46 “O the miserable & calamitous spectacle, such as happly the whole world had not seene the like since the foundation of it, nor to be out don, ‘til the universal Conflagration of it, all the skie were of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burning Oven, & the light seene above 40 miles round about for many nights. God grant mine eyes may never behold the like, who now saw above ten thousand houses all in one flame, the noise & crackling & thunder of the impetuous flames, shreeking of Women & children, the hurry of people, the fall of towers, houses & churches was like an hideous storme….Thus I left it this afternoone burning, a resemblance of Sodome, or the last day…London was, but is no more!” —Samuel Pepys

47 When it finally had run its course, the fire had destroyed 5/6 of London, 13,200 houses, and 87 of 97 churches. Some 200,000 people were left homeless & subsisting in fields outside of London. Left: the ruins of the old St Paul’s Cathedral after the Great Fire of 1666

48 When it finally had run its course, the fire had destroyed 5/6 of London, 13,200 houses, and 87 of 97 churches. Some 200,000 people were left homeless & subsisting in fields outside of London. It had started in Pudding Lane & stopped at Pie Corner. Left: the ruins of the old St Paul’s Cathedral after the Great Fire of 1666

49 When it finally had run its course, the fire had destroyed 5/6 of London, 13,200 houses, and 87 of 97 churches. Some 200,000 people were left homeless & subsisting in fields outside of London. It had started in Pudding Lane & stopped at Pie Corner. Amazingly, only 6 people died. Left: the ruins of the old St Paul’s Cathedral after the Great Fire of 1666

50 St. Paul’s Cathedral as rebuilt by Christopher Wren used the classical elements of the dome and columns in the baroque style of the 1600s. Wren’s original design resembled churches in Catholic Rome, which was fine with the secretly Catholic king, but not with the Puritans or even the king’s Anglican cavalier supporters, who vetoed it.

51 The architect, Christopher Wren with his great creation, St. Paul’s Cathedral, in the background. Wren had a grand design for rebuilding London as a much cleaner and more organized city. However, officials passed it up, mainly because of its expense.

52 To make matters worse, the next year (1667) a Dutch raid up the Medway surprised the English & destroyed many of their ships in harbor.

53 Even England’s most prestigious man-of-war, the Royal Charles, was abandoned by its crew during the Dutch raid up the Medway and towed back to Holland. When Charles joined Catholic France against the Dutch in 1672, even Puritans went along with him to get revenge for this humiliating raid.

54 In 1672, Charles, now allied with Louis XIV, renewed the struggle against the Dutch. Despite facing overwhelming odds, Dutch resistance against the French and English stiffened as seen in their victory over the English at Texel (1673).

55 William III of Orange’s stalwart stand in the war led to England making a separate peace with the Dutch, allowing them to focus on fighting France. The marriage of Mary Stuart, daughter of the future James II, to William, who was 12 years older and 4 inches shorter than his wife, would have major consequences when William and Mary sailed over from Holland at Parliament’s request to dethrone James in the Glorious Revolution (1688), the deal being William got England’s support in the Nine Years War against Louis, if he let Parliament run affairs inside England.

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57 FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., His relations with Parliament? a

58 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues still remaining?

59 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Problem with the succession? POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain:

60 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Problem with the succession? POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain:

61 Complicating life for Charles was Titus Oates’ Popish plot, a supposed Catholic conspiracy to blow up Parliament and then take over England. As preposterous as it was, it triggered two years of anti-Catholic hysteria in England similar to the McCarthy era in the 1950s, forcing Charles to act like he took it seriously so he didn’t arouse any more suspicions about his religious faith.

62 FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Problem with the succession? POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: a

63 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain:

64 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain:

65 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain:

66 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain:

67 ****** FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain:

68 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain:

69 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain:

70 FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: On the surface, how strong did monarchy seem by Charles’ death in 1685? a

71 FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Charles’ successor and his qualities? a

72 James II ( ), whose stubborn personality and staunch Catholic faith were the perfect combination to ensure his quick overthrow after only three years on the throne.

73 People were willing to wait for James to die, since he had no heir to the throne-- until Queen Mary Beatrice announced she was pregnant. Many liked to claim the pregnancy was a hoax, with a baby being sneaked into to the birthing room in a warming pan. Others claimed it got in disguised as a rabbit.

74 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain:

75 Mary Stuart, daughter of James II, and her husband, William III of Orange who sailed over from Holland at Parliament’s request to dethrone James in the Glorious Revolution (1688)

76 William III of Holland landing at Torbay to overthrow James II

77 Battle of the Boyne (1690) where William’s primarily Dutch & German army defeated James II’s French & Irish troops in one last desperate attempt to regain his throne.

78 The Jacobites (supporters of Stuart claims to the British throne) continued to press those claims into the 18th century. Their last good hope for restoring the Stuarts lay with Bonnie Prince Charlie of Scotland, who was finally defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.

79 FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: What was this event called? Law is above king a

80 FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Type of govt. it  ? a

81 FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Basic idea? a

82 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain:

83 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen:

84 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen:

85 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen:

86 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

87 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

88 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

89 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

90 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Bank of Eng. (f.1694) repays loans w/interest Faith in gov.  Invest in Bank  Helps econ. Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

91 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Bank of Eng. (f.1694) repays loans w/interest Faith in gov.  Invest in Bank  Helps econ. Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

92 One day the Bank of England said to some potential investors: Bank of England I sure could use a loan I’ll guarantee repaying you at 5% interest.

93 And they did. Bank of England $$$$$$

94 One day Mr. Tophamhat went to the Bank of England for a loan for the capital to start his own railroad. Bank of England $$$$$$

95 And the Bank said: Bank of England Sure I’ll help you, Mr. Tophamhat. $$$$$$

96 And he did: Bank of England Here you go. $$$$$$ Gosh, thanks!

97 And Mr. Tophamhat built his Railroad: Bank of England

98 And it made money: Bank of England $$$$$$

99 And Mr. Tophamhat paid back the bank with interest: Bank of England Thanks, Mr. Tophamhat. $$$$$$ Intere$t $$$$$$

100 And then the Bank of England paid back its investors with interest, which made them very happy. Bank of England Thanks Now I can buy a bicycle. $$$$$$ Thanks Intere$t $$$$$$

101 And then Mr. Tophamhat wanted to build another railroad so he asked the bank for another loan: Bank of England $$$$$$ Can I have another loan, Mr. Bank of England? Let me see if I can get another loan from my investors.

102 And the Bank of England asked the investors for more loans paid with interest with interest. And the investors said: Bank of England After all that profit we made on our last loan to you…Sure!! $$$$$$ After all that profit we made on our last loan to you…Sure!!

103 And they did. Bank of England $$$$$$

104 So the Bank loaned Mr. Tophamhat the money and Mr. Tophamhat built another Railroad: Bank of England $$$$$$

105 And the Railroads made more money. Bank of England $$$$$$

106 And Mr. Tophamhat paid back the bank with interest: Bank of England $$$$$$ Intere$t Thanks, Mr. Tophamhat. $$$$$$

107 And then the Bank of England paid back its investors with interest, which made them very happy. Bank of England Thanks Now I can buy a two bicycles. $$$$$$ Intere$t Thanks Intere$t

108 And then Mr. Tophamhat wanted to build another railroad so he asked the bank for another loarn: Bank of England $$$$$$ Can I have another loan, Mr. Bank of England? Let me see if I can get another loan from my investors.

109 And the Bank of England asked the investors for more loans paid with interest with interest. And the investors said: Bank of England After all that profit we made on our last loan to your…Sure!! $$$$$$ After all that profit we made on our last loan to your…Sure!!

110 So the Bank loaned Mr. Tophamhat the money and Mr. Tophamhat built another Railroad: Bank of England $$$$$$

111 And the Railroads made more money. Bank of England $$$$$$

112 And Mr. Tophamhat paid back the bank with interest: Bank of England $$$$$$ Intere$t Thanks, Mr. Tophamhat. $$$$$$

113 And then the Bank of England paid back its investors with interest, which made them very happy. Bank of England Thanks Now I can buy a two bicycles. $$$$$$ Thanks Intere$t $$$$$$

114 So with capital and good credit rating, the Bank of England was able to fund and coordinate investment in England so everyone could make $$$ Bank of England $$$$$$ Intere$t $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

115 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Bank of Eng. (f.1694) repays loans w/interest Faith in gov.  Invest in Bank  Helps econ. Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

116 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Bank of Eng. (f.1694) repays loans w/interest Faith in gov.  Invest in Bank  Helps econ. Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

117 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Bank of Eng. (f.1694) repays loans w/interest Faith in gov.  Invest in Bank  Helps econ. Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

118 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Bank of Eng. (f.1694) repays loans w/interest Faith in gov.  Invest in Bank  Helps econ. Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

119 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Bank of Eng. (f.1694) repays loans w/interest Faith in gov.  Invest in Bank  Helps econ. Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

120 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Bank of Eng. (f.1694) repays loans w/interest Faith in gov.  Invest in Bank  Helps econ. Spreads across globe (FC. 116) Indus. Rev. in Eng. (FC. 111) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

121 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Bank of Eng. (f.1694) repays loans w/interest Faith in gov.  Invest in Bank  Helps econ. Spreads across globe (FC. 116) Indus. Rev. in Eng. (FC. 111) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

122 a FC.96C FROM RESTORATION MONARCHY TO GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Fr Revolution  Democr. ideas spread across globe (FC. 106) Restoration of the monarchy in 1661 after Cromwell’s harsh rule (FC. 96B) Bank of Eng. (f.1694) repays loans w/interest Faith in gov.  Invest in Bank  Helps econ. Spreads across globe (FC. 116) Indus. Rev. in Eng. (FC. 111) Accession of James II ( ) a stubborn & bigoted king openly favoring Catholicism & absolute monarchy On the surface, Eng. monarchy seems as strong as ever by Charles’ death in 1685 Tories & Whigs join together to invite James’ daughter, Mary, & her husband, William III of Holland to depose him “Glorious Rev.” (1688)  Constitutional Monarchy  Law is above king Freedom of speech & religion Right to due process of law for all Parl. grants taxes 1 yr. at a time Parliament. elections every 2 yrs RELIGION: Charles, secretly Catholic, restores power of Church of England with bishops & other Cath. elements Manages to resist attempts to disown his brother & heir apparent, James who is an avowed Catholic POLITICS: Evol. of 2 parties: WHIGS: who support Parl. & Presbyterian church vs. TORIES: who are pro-royalist & Anglican (not Catholic) MONEY: Charles largely indep. of Parl, esp in later yrs because: More money from trade More $ from N. Am. colonies Secret funding from Louis XIV so he could restore Cath. Ch. in Eng. Monarchy of Charles II ( ), a more frivolous monarch who reopens the theaters, racetracks, pubs, etc., & rules with a largely cavalier Parliament who votes him a good allowance. Issues of money, religion, & politics still remain: Civil rights for all Englishmen: Polit. rights for men with property:

123 Queen Anne who succeeded William & her sister, Mary. It was Anne who pulled England out of the War of the Spanish Succession ( ) which prompted everyone else to make peace. Although she had 10 children, none survived to adulthood. Therefore, she was succeeded by her cousin, George I, from the German state of Hanover. Since he could not speak any English, Parliament used this opportunity to further increase its power in the 1700s. In the 18th century, Britain would turn its attentions more to building its colonial empire and making money, two critical factors in its being the first country to industrialize.

124 FC.96D THE COMPARATIVE GEOGRAPHIES & HISTORIES OF ENGLAND AND FRANCE IN THE 1600s Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Rel. wars ( )  People want peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) England an island More trade & few invasionsLess need for army Stronger MC & weaker nobles than in France France on continent More threats of invasionsMore need for army Weaker MC & stronger nobles than in England Absolute monarchy which enforces & is supported by: Mercantilism: a more absolutist state controlled type of economy State enforced Catholicism which supports king’s power with DRK More democ. Const. mon. supporting & supported by: Free trade capitalism which is run by same MC that runs Parliament Protestant relig. which sees all believers as equal in God’s eyes


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