2Open WoundsA break in the skin’s surface resulting in external bleedingMay allow bacteria to enter the body, causing an infection
3Types of Open Wounds Abrasion Laceration Incision Puncture Avulsion Amputation
4Care for Open Wounds Protect yourself with medical exam gloves. Expose the wound.Control bleeding.Wash with soap and water.
5Wound Cleaning (1 of 2) Shallow wounds Wash with soap and water and flush with clean water.Wound with high risk of infectionSeek medical care for wound cleaning.If in remote area, clean as best you can.Remove small objects with sterile tweezers.
7Covering a Wound Cover with thin layer of antibiotic ointment. Cover with a sterile dressing.Change any wet or dirty dressings.
8When to Seek Medical Care To clean high-risk woundsFor wound closureVictim has not had a tetanus booster in past 10 yearsVictim has a dirty wound and has not had tetanus booster in 5 yearsMust receive booster within 72 hours
9Signs of Infection Swelling and redness around the wound Sensation of warmthThrobbing painPus dischargeFeverSwelling of lymph nodesRed streaks leading from the wound toward the heart
10Care for Infected Wound (1 of 2) Keep area clean.Soak in warm water or apply warm, wet packs.Elevate the infected portion of the body.
11Care for Infected Wound (2 of 2) Apply antibiotic ointment.Change the dressings daily.Seek medical help if infection persists or becomes worse.
12TetanusTetanus bacterium enters a wound that contains little oxygen and produces powerful toxin.No known antidote to the toxin once it enters bloodstream.A tetanus vaccine can completely prevent the disease.
13Amputations In many cases, amputated extremity can be replanted. Types GuillotineCrushingDegloving
14Care for Amputations Control bleeding. Treat for shock. Recover amputated part.Wrap part in gauze, place in a bag, and keep bag cool.Transport the part with the victim.
15BlistersA collection of fluid in a “bubble” under outer layer of skin.Repeated rubbing of small area will produce a blister.
16Care for Blisters If blister on foot is open or very painful: Clean with soap and water.Drain fluid from blister with a sterilized needle.Apply layers of moleskin or molefoam.Apply antibiotic ointment.
17Impaled (Embedded) Objects Many kinds of objects can become impaled and cause significant internal damage:PencilsScrewdriversKnivesGlassSteel rodsFence posts
18Care For Embedded (Impaled) Objects Expose area.DO NOT remove the object.Control bleeding around the object.Stabilize the object.
19Slivers Can be painful and irritating Usually easily removed with tweezersAfter removal, clean with soap and water and apply adhesive strip.Special cases:Cactus spines: Use white wood-working glueFishooks: Use pliers with tempered jaws or fishline method
20Closed Wounds Results when a blunt object strikes the body Skin is not broken but tissue and blood vessels are crushed.Types of closed wounds:Bruises and contusionsHematomasCrush injuries
21Wounds That Require Medical Attention Possibility of a scarEyelid cutSlit lipInternal bleedingUncertain how to treatNeed a tetanus shotUncontrolled bleedingDeep woundsLarge or deeply embedded objectsForeign matter in woundHuman or animal bite
22Gunshot Wounds A bullet causes injury in two ways: Laceration and crushingShock waves and temporary cavitationInitial care for gunshot wounds is roughly the same as for any other wound.