Presentation on theme: "World History Mrs. Damonte Room 104 Module 1 Review Online content Mrs. Damonte 2013-2014."— Presentation transcript:
World History Mrs. Damonte Room 104 Module 1 Review Online content Mrs. Damonte 2013-2014
1.01 Set the Stage Byzantine Empire: Roman Empire became too big Difficult to govern Conflicts between Roman leaders and Barbarian invaders weakened the Empire. Diocltian divided the Empire in two: Western Roman Empire: Rome its capital Eastern Roman Empire: Constantinople its capital One emperor per side: Western: Diocletian Eastern: Constantine I
1.01 How did the Byzantine Empire Developed? Byzantine Empire lasted 1000 years: Many changes: bigger & smaller Invasions, conflicts, and poor rulers weakened the empire. At its height with Justinian I Eastern Roman Empire lands + some Western Important cities: Capital, religious, and economic center Eastern Empire: Constantinople Religious center in Africa: Alexandria in Egypt Government seat for Far Eastern Empire: Antioch in Syria Government center in Italy: Ravenna
1.02 Monotheistic Religions Where are they predominant? Judaism: Israel and North America Christianity: Europe; North, Central & South America Islam: Northern Africa, Western Asia, some islands of the Pacific. Jerusalem: Important to all three religions. Wailing Wall, Rock of the Dome, Church of The Nativity & Holly Sepulcher. Birth of Monotheism: Southeast Asia. Founder: Abraham Abrahamic religions Basic belief: one god.
1.02 Monotheistic Religions Holy Books: Judaism: Torah: history and revelations before and after Moses. Christianity: Old Testament: basically the Torah New Testament: life and teachings of Jesus as told by his disciples. Islam: Qur’an: words of god to Muhammad. All three religions share: Believe in one god with different names All three honor the ten commandments. All practice fasting. All three honor a day of the week: Jews: Saturday-Sabbath Christians: Sunday Muslims: Friday All three believe in afterlife. All three believe humans have soul. Only Christians: Sacraments and resurrection of Jesus Only Muslims: Five Pillars: declaration of faith, prayer, Almsgiving, fasting & pilgrimage to Meca Judaism and Islam: Food taboos: Jews: Kosher Muslims: halal
1.02 Monotheistic Religions Sacred sites and symbols: Judaism: Star of David Wailing Wall (Temple Mount): meeting place for all three religions. Cave of the Patriarchs Congregations led by Rabbi Islam: Star and Crescent Kaaba in Mecca The Green Dome of Medina Congregations led by Imans Christianity: Cross Church of the Holly Sepulcher Church of the Nativity Congregations led by priests.
1.02 Monotheistic Religions Judaism: Hassidic Reform Christianity: Roman Catholic Pope in Rome Protestant: Lutheranism Presbytarianism Anglican Baptist Methodist Quaker Unitarian Eastern Orthodox Patriarch in Greece Islam: Summis Shias
1.03 Expansion of Islam Fastest growing religion Originated in the Arabian Peninsula. Muhammad is its prophet Total submission to god Medina is the city of the prophet Muslim is the one that submits to god. Allah: god Islam begins with Hijra Pilgrimage of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina Muhammad dies in 632
1.03 Spread of Islam 612-632: 612-Mohammad received revelations from god. 632-Conquered tribes adopted Islam. Control large portion of Arabian Peninsula Muhammad died 632-661 First four rulers after Muhammad-Four Rightly Guided Caliphs Defeated Persians and Byzantines Control Arabian Peninsula, Persia, Syria, & Egypt 661-750 661-the last Rightly Guided Caliph was murdered Split into Sunny & Shia Raise of the Umayyad Caliphate Expanded into Spain, North Africa, and Central Asia 750-1258: Umayyad out of power; Abbasid raided to power Umayyad escaped-established empire in Spain. 700 years Persian rulers adopted Islam. Traders spread the religion into West & East Africa. From India into China & Southeast Asia. 1258-1683 13 th century in Southeast Asia & North Africa. Ottomans conquered Constantinople. Expanded to Arab, Persian, and North Europe lands. Mongols adopted Islam=New Empire in India.
1.03 Spread of Islam 1- Expansion under Muhammad: 622-632 2- Expansion under the Rashidum Caliphate: 632-661 3- Expansion under the Umayyad Caliphate: 661-670 1 1 1 2 2 3 1
1.03 Islam in India: The Mughal Empire First came to India w/Arab merchants 11 th century Mamluks gained power-overthrew Abbasid N. Africa & SW Asia12th century. Mongols dominated most of Asia Not all India converted. Some went to Hinduism. 16 th century Mongols overthrew the Delhi Sultanate-established the Mughal Empire. Muslim empire did not last-remains a powerful religion. From India to Malaysia and Indonesia. Very powerful.
1.04 The Golden Age of Islam What is a “golden age”? Great time of achievement Many factors helped with this Golden Age: Qur’an: principles of respect for all and knowlegde. Did not force conversion Higher taxes for non-Muslims Islamic law and Arabic ruled the Empire Discovered of Chinese papermaking process Further knowledge and economy House of Wisdon-Baghdad Translate great works of literature into Arabic. Preserved Greek and Roman classics
Art: Arabesques Pottery Mathematic: Arabic numerals adapted from Hindu Idea of zero=algebra Science: Geometry and astronomy Beginning of scientific method Medicine: Anatomy Avicenna: Cannon-book Encyclopedia of Philosophy Architecture: Complex in color and arabesques Simple outside, ornate inside Archways and geometric patterns Literature: One Thousand and One Nights or Arabian Nighs Calligraphy: Intricate lettering Especially used in the Qur’an Islamic Golden Age Achievements
Eastern Roman Empire Constantinople=Byzantium Constantine I rebuild it Look like Old Rome Known as New Rome People living in Constantinople Considerer themselves Romans Now called Byzantines 11 th century: Disagreement over the rule of the Roman Church Split in the Empire Western and Eastern 4 th century Eastern Roman Empire thrived Western Roman Empire declined Invasions Declining economy Poor leadership 476 CE collapsed Known as the “Fall of Rome” Germanic kingdoms claimed Roman lands Roads and structures fell into disrepair Commerce collapse Roman Catholic Church became a powerful force in Western Europe 1.05 The Byzantine Empire
Eastern emperors kept a strong army Constantinople survived another 1000 years Continue with Roman law and traditions Justinian codified Roman Law Revived Hellenistic (Greek) art and literature Credited with maintaining the Greek and Roman knowledge that we still use today. Latin was the official language of the Empire Most people spoke Greek The Byzantine emperors Far away from Rome Thought to have authority over the whole Roman Empire including Roman Church The emperor final authority Patriarchs and bishops answered to the Emperor not the pope Christianity: Helped unified the people of the Byzantine Empire 8 th & 9 th cneturies Iconoclast controversy Reverence to figures and painting Forbidden in the Bible 1.05 The Byzantine Empire
Iconoclast controversy: Lasted more than 100 years Became political Emperor did not need church in Rome to ban icons People who supported icons=persecuted & excommunicated Could not partake in communion Broke relations between West and East Charlemagne crowned emperor of the West 800 CE Church did not recognized Eastern Emperor as head of the church Other issues: Leavened bread in mass against unleavened Power of the pope: Emperor over the Patriarch Constantinople as a Christian city center as equal to Rome Schism: 1054 Pope excommunicated Patriarch Patriarch excommunicated Pope Split in the Church West Roman Catholic Pope and Rome East Eastern Orthodox Patriarch and Constantinole 1.05 The Byzantine Empire
Roman Catholic Church: Latin official language Pope highest authority Priests can’t marry Married couples could not divorce Centered in Rome Similarities Based on teachings of Jesus and Bible Sacraments Have priests and bishops Seek to convert others to Christianity Eastern Orthodox Church Greek official language Patriarch and bishops as leaders Priests can marry Married couples could divorce Centered in Constantinople Similarities and Differences Between the two Churches
395 to 1025 CE Most powerful empire Constantinople Capital Economic, cultural, & political center Contributions in art, architecture, language, & law. Code of law influenced countries for centuries US Constantinople: Constantine founded in 330 CE Capital of the Eastern Roman Empire Located in two continents: Europe: Bosphorus Controlled land and sea trade routes between Europe and Asia 1.06 The Byzantine Empire: Achievement and Expansion
Between Europe and Asia Culture influenced both regions Architecture combined both styles Hagia Sophia Christian Church 1453 Turks converted to a mosque Byzantine society Upper class: Small percentage Aristocrats of Roman descent, wealthy landowner Middle class: Small percentage Shopkeepers & small scale merchants Lower class: Majority Poor workers & serfs Slaves: Large percentage Owned by wealthy aristocrats or government Worked in private residences, mines, & farms Justinian I 527 became emperor Not son of preceding ruler Born of peasant origins Imperial succession not hereditary Wife: Theodora Not upper class either Husband and wife different parties Justinian blue Theodora greens Both parties revolt: Nika Rebellion 532 CE Bribed blues to leave the greeens Constantinople’s Location
Constantine I contributed to the collapse Constant wars Rebuilding of Constantinople Economic troubles Army scattered across the land Lombards conquered northern Italy Bubonic plague also Justinian Plague Killed millions Shortage of human power The Crusades and the weaken of the Empire 1 st Crusade Latins settle in Constantinople Resentment between Latins and Byzantines 1100s Venice gains control over Byzantine trade routes 4 th Crusade Latins take hold of Constantinople 1250 CE emperor Michael VIII restores the Byzantine Empire 1300s Ottomans Turks conquered Byzantine territory in Asia Minor 1.07 Collapse of An Empire