3 Basics of Islam Origins Beliefs Spread Deity: Allah (God) Prophet: MuhammadWhere: Northern Africa, Southwest Asia, Southern SpainHoly Book:QuranHoly Cities: MeccaMedinaJerusalemMoral Code:5 pillarsWhen:A.D.Other Holy People: same as Judaism & Christianity
4 Factors that Enabled Islam to Spread Over Great Distances Despite Harsh Environments Islam becomes a major religion in less than 100 years.Trade RoutesNomadic LifestyleWeak NeighborsNomadic LifestyleHerders and traders spread the wordTrade RoutesCrossroads of Asian, European, and African land and sea trade.Weak NeighborsPersian & Roman Empires had collapsed and Byzantine Empire was declining
5 Language Social Structure A Short-Lived Empire Due to the many internal, political conflicts of the Muslim Empire, its territory did not stay unified for very long. However, Islamic culture remained a common bond amongst politically divided lands.LanguageSocial StructureName: ArabicWhy this language: language of QuranBenefits: easier communication and trade between different culturesLevels: 1. Muslims Converted Muslims Jews and Christians Non-MuslimsBenefits: All areas under Islamic influence had same classes. Rights given to all “People of the Book.”
6 Succession– would should be leader Damascus is conquered by Muslims.Historical Turning Points of the Islamic World A caliphate is territory ruled by a caliph.Jerusalem is conquered by the Muslims.As “People of the Book”, Jews and Christians are accepted, not forced to convert.Many Jews return to Jerusalem after being exiled by the Byzantines and others.CapitalTrade & learningDAMASCUS1st CALIPHATEJERUSALEMsuccessorSuccession– would should be leaderSunni & ShiaTHE SPLIT
7 Islam to stop spreading North Caliphs spread Islam through Northern Africa into Spain.Historical Turning Points of the Islamic WorldFrenchIslam to stop spreading NorthBATTLE OF TOURSCapitalPopulation increasesTrade & learningMongols create the largest empire in history.Mongols destroyed Baghdad & executed the caliph.Brief Mongol rule. Eventually the Ottoman Turks control much Muslim land.2nd CALIPHATEBAGHDAD2nd CALIPHATE ENDS
8 Cultural Achievements of Islamic Civilization Fill in the spaces with detailed information using pages 235, 236, & 246 in your textbook.ArchitectureWritingMosquePurpose:Prayer hall where Muslimsfree themselves from worldlyconcernsFeatures:Most have domes and minaretsDome of the RockCity:JerusalemLocation in City:Temple MountArabic Alphabet1. 28 letters, not pictures2. Written right to left3. Uniform writing inconquered areasCalligraphyDefinition:Artistic handwritingPurpose:Preservation of The Koran
9 Intellectual Achievements of Islamic Civilization EducationScienceMedicineUsed ancient knowledge and scientific understanding to find new solutions to old problems.Astronomy & GeographyIncreased trade = more knowledge of land/waterNeed for precise prayer schedules & direction = astronomical advancementsTranslationsPurpose for translating ancient texts to Arabic: was to preserve the KoranUniversitiesMuch emphasis on learning because it improved understanding of the KoranArabic NumeralsAdopted from Indians, including the concept of zero, and later used by Europeans.MathAlgebraMuslim scholars discovered many of the basics of Algebra
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.