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BYZANTINE & MUSLIM EMPIRES Chapter 10. The Byzantine Empire  OBJECTIVES:  Discover how Constantinople became so powerful  Discover the achievements.

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Presentation on theme: "BYZANTINE & MUSLIM EMPIRES Chapter 10. The Byzantine Empire  OBJECTIVES:  Discover how Constantinople became so powerful  Discover the achievements."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Byzantine Empire  OBJECTIVES:  Discover how Constantinople became so powerful  Discover the achievements of the age of Justinian

3 Byzantine Empire (Constantine)  Greek Fire  Why Constantinople was located where it was (trade center)  Constantine's capital  Good Emperors account for some of the success  Medieval times (period of time following the fall of the western half of the Roman empire, 476 A.D. to about 1500 A.D.)

4 Age of Justinian  As Rome fell, Constantinople got stronger  In a line of many great rulers, Justinian was one of the greatest  Born poor, it gave him the ability to listen to all people  Justinian’s code

5 Byzantine Culture  Kept copies of all ancient Greek and Roman works, mixed with Christian ideas it made Constantinople a very knowledge rich area  When the empire declined the documents were taken to Italy and helped start the renaissance

6 The later Years of the Empire  The Great Schism (split)  Second Golden age  The fall (Attacks from the North “Russians” the West “Christian Crusaders” and the East “Turks and Muslims”)  Constantinople fell and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire

7 Check For Understanding  Pg 289  1 A/B  2 A/B  3 A/B

8 Start of Islam  The Prophet Muhammad  Messenger to the people  Started in the Arabian Peninsula  Taught to worship 1 God (Poly or Mono?)  After Muhammad’s death the religion spread

9 Arabian Peninsula  Life Support  Bedouins (nomadic desert people)  Became guides for Caravans

10 MECCA  Was an important trading post turned city  People travelled from the Mecca to other places

11 Muhammad  Travelling Merchant trader  Went to the mountains to pray alone  At age 40 God spoke to him through an angel  Followers of Muhammad became known as Muslims  Muslims religion or a person who “submits” became known as Islam  People go to the Mecca to pray to Kaaba

12 Hijra  Hijra mean “the migration”  The city of Yathrib changed to Medina “city of the prophet”  Became year 1 on the Muslin calendar

13 Muslim Beliefs  Muezzin (myoo ez in)  Pray 5 times a day to Allah  Mosque  There is only one God  They kneel and face toward the Mecca

14 The 5 Pillars of Islam

15 The Quran  Islamic Bible  Lists Muhammad’s conversations with God  Includes stories, promises, warnings, and instructions  The respect Jews and Christians as “people of the book”

16 Role of Women  Before Islam  Quran Taught:  Women are spiritually equal  Women could own or inherit property  Women could be educated  Women would not be forced to marry  Women could divorce

17 Muslim Split  The Muslim leader Uthman was assassinated and a debate over who would lead ensued  2 new groups  Shiites- felt the new leader should be a direct descendent of Muhammad  Sunnis- any truly religious man who followed Muhammad could be the leader (85% of Muslims are Sunnis)

18 Check For Understanding  1. A/B  2. A/B/C

19 Muslim Civilization  Within 150 years of Muhammad's death, his new religion had spread many miles all directions  How?  Arabic traders  Arab armies (failed at attacking Constantinople) but converted most of the Mediterranean sea coast to Islam.  Their advancement stopped when they reached France and were stopped by the European armies.

20 Reasons for Success  Lack of a powerful empire to stop them  Arab peoples began to work together  Allowed people to have what ever beliefs they wanted (though there were rules)

21 The Golden Age  From 800 to 1000 there were great advances in mathematics, science, architecture, and lasting literature.  Why so much success?  Muslim Caliphs- Muslim rulers during this time period (successors to Muhammad)  Muslim Empire capital was Baghdad, easily accessible by all sorts of routes.  This led to a booming trading atmosphere with a multitude of products

22 The Golden Age  Al Khwarizmi- wrote a book on arithmetic, and also helped invent algebra  Sufis – Muslims who thought they could draw closer to God through fasting, prayer, and the simple life

23 Ottoman Empire  1200’s, the last Caliph was killed by the Mongols(Central Asian People)  Mongols conquered the Middle East and also moved into the Byzantine and took over as well  Sultan (ruler of Ottoman Empire)  Southern Europe, The Middle East, North Africa were all controlled by the Sultan  Rose to power using Religious and Cultural tolerance

24  Re-Read Chapter 10!!!!

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