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BYZANTINE & MUSLIM EMPIRES Chapter 10. The Byzantine Empire  OBJECTIVES:  Discover how Constantinople became so powerful  Discover the achievements.

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Presentation on theme: "BYZANTINE & MUSLIM EMPIRES Chapter 10. The Byzantine Empire  OBJECTIVES:  Discover how Constantinople became so powerful  Discover the achievements."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Byzantine Empire  OBJECTIVES:  Discover how Constantinople became so powerful  Discover the achievements of the age of Justinian

3 Byzantine Empire (Constantine)  Greek Fire  Why Constantinople was located where it was (trade center)  Constantine's capital  Good Emperors account for some of the success  Medieval times (period of time following the fall of the western half of the Roman empire, 476 A.D. to about 1500 A.D.)

4 Age of Justinian  As Rome fell, Constantinople got stronger  In a line of many great rulers, Justinian was one of the greatest  Born poor, it gave him the ability to listen to all people  Justinian’s code (fixed the contradictory Roman laws)

5 Byzantine Culture  Kept copies of all ancient Greek and Roman works, mixed with Christian ideas it made Constantinople a very knowledge rich area  When the empire declined the documents were taken to Italy and helped start the renaissance  Why would they take them to Italy?

6 The later Years of the Empire  The Great Schism (split) (due to an argument between Rome’s Pope and the Emperor of Constantinople)  Greek (eastern orthodox) Christians and Roman Catholic Christians  Second Golden age  The fall (Attacks from the North “Russians” the West “Christian Crusaders” and the East “Turks and Muslims”)  Constantinople fell and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire (Name changed to Istanbul)

7 Check For Understanding  Pg 289  1 A/B  2 A/B  3 A/B

8 Start of Islam  The Prophet Muhammad  Messenger to the people  Started in the Arabian Peninsula  Taught to worship 1 God (Poly or Mono?)  After Muhammad’s death the religion spread

9 Arabian Peninsula  Life Support  Bedouins (nomadic desert people)  Became guides for Caravans

10 MECCA  Was an important trading post turned city  People travelled from the Mecca to other places

11 Muhammad  Travelling Merchant trader  Went to the mountains to pray alone  At age 40 God spoke to him through an angel  Followers of Muhammad became known as Muslims  Muslims religion or a person who “submits” became known as a member of Islam  People go to the Mecca to pray to Kaaba

12 Hijra  Hijra means “the migration”  The city of Yathrib changed to Medina “city of the prophet” in 622  Became year 1 on the Muslim calendar

13 Muslim Beliefs  Muezzin (myoo ez in)  Pray 5 times a day to Allah  Mosque  There is only one God  They kneel and face toward the Mecca

14 The 5 Pillars of Islam

15 The Quran  Islamic Bible  Lists Muhammad’s conversations with God  Includes stories, promises, warnings, and instructions  They show respect to Jews and Christians as “people of the book”

16 Role of Women  Before Islam  Quran Taught:  Women are spiritually equal  Women could own or inherit property  Women could be educated  Women would not be forced to marry  Women could divorce

17 Muslim Split  The Muslim leader Uthman was assassinated and a debate over who would lead ensued  2 new groups  Shiites- felt the new leader should be a direct descendent of Muhammad  Sunnis- any truly religious man who followed Muhammad could be the leader (85% of Muslims are Sunnis)

18 USING YOUR NOTES….  1- What geographic feature covers most of the Arabian Peninsula?  2- How did geography (the lay of the land) effect settlement?  3-Why were the Bedouins nomads?  4-What was the main event in Muhammad's life?

19 Muslim Civilization  Objectives:  How did Islam Spread?  What was the Golden Age of Islam under the rule of the caliphs  Learn about the Ottoman Empire

20 Omar Khayyam  Persia was a center for math, science, and poetry  Omar- most famous mathematician in the world at that time, as well as a leading astronomer  Omar’s time was considered the golden age of the Muslim civilization….why?

21 The Spread of Islam  Within 150 years after Muhammad's death, Islam spread into Africa, Spain, Persia, and Northern India and China  Arab merchants (travel)  Military conquests  Spread halted when European forces cut them off in Spain

22 Reasons for Success  During Muhammad's time the surrounding empires were to strong  After Muhammad the Byzantine and Persian empires were to weak to stop the Muslim expansion

23 Golden Age  800-1100  Reason for the Golden Age  Caliphs (good leadership)  Conquered and Controlled land though trade  Strong military  Location of the capital

24 Baghdad

25 Major Achievements  Math- advanced arithmetic, invented algebra  Medical- organized multiple theories of medicine into one book called Canon of Medicine  Literature- poetry and writing were very important, many works are around even today  Sufis- Muslim who believed they drew close to God through prayer and fasting

26 The Ottoman Empire  As the Caliphs declined other groups gained power  The Ottoman (Muslim Turks and Mongols) took over Baghdad and then conquered what was left of the Byzantines at Constantinople as well as Greece.  Sultan- Ottoman ruler  Jews and Christians lived under Ottoman rule and were allowed to practice their religion freely

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