Presentation on theme: "BYZANTINE & MUSLIM EMPIRES Chapter 10. The Byzantine Empire OBJECTIVES: Discover how Constantinople became so powerful Discover the achievements."— Presentation transcript:
The Byzantine Empire OBJECTIVES: Discover how Constantinople became so powerful Discover the achievements of the age of Justinian
Byzantine Empire (Constantine) Greek Fire Why Constantinople was located where it was (trade center) Constantine's capital Good Emperors account for some of the success Medieval times (period of time following the fall of the western half of the Roman empire, 476 A.D. to about 1500 A.D.)
Age of Justinian As Rome fell, Constantinople got stronger In a line of many great rulers, Justinian was one of the greatest Born poor, it gave him the ability to listen to all people Justinian’s code (fixed the contradictory Roman laws)
Byzantine Culture Kept copies of all ancient Greek and Roman works, mixed with Christian ideas it made Constantinople a very knowledge rich area When the empire declined the documents were taken to Italy and helped start the renaissance Why would they take them to Italy?
The later Years of the Empire The Great Schism (split) (due to an argument between Rome’s Pope and the Emperor of Constantinople) Greek (eastern orthodox) Christians and Roman Catholic Christians Second Golden age The fall (Attacks from the North “Russians” the West “Christian Crusaders” and the East “Turks and Muslims”) Constantinople fell and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire (Name changed to Istanbul)
Start of Islam The Prophet Muhammad Messenger to the people Started in the Arabian Peninsula Taught to worship 1 God (Poly or Mono?) After Muhammad’s death the religion spread
Arabian Peninsula Life Support Bedouins (nomadic desert people) Became guides for Caravans
MECCA Was an important trading post turned city People travelled from the Mecca to other places
Muhammad Travelling Merchant trader Went to the mountains to pray alone At age 40 God spoke to him through an angel Followers of Muhammad became known as Muslims Muslims religion or a person who “submits” became known as a member of Islam People go to the Mecca to pray to Kaaba
Hijra Hijra means “the migration” The city of Yathrib changed to Medina “city of the prophet” in 622 Became year 1 on the Muslim calendar
Muslim Beliefs Muezzin (myoo ez in) Pray 5 times a day to Allah Mosque There is only one God They kneel and face toward the Mecca
The Quran Islamic Bible Lists Muhammad’s conversations with God Includes stories, promises, warnings, and instructions They show respect to Jews and Christians as “people of the book”
Role of Women Before Islam Quran Taught: Women are spiritually equal Women could own or inherit property Women could be educated Women would not be forced to marry Women could divorce
Muslim Split The Muslim leader Uthman was assassinated and a debate over who would lead ensued 2 new groups Shiites- felt the new leader should be a direct descendent of Muhammad Sunnis- any truly religious man who followed Muhammad could be the leader (85% of Muslims are Sunnis)
USING YOUR NOTES…. 1- What geographic feature covers most of the Arabian Peninsula? 2- How did geography (the lay of the land) effect settlement? 3-Why were the Bedouins nomads? 4-What was the main event in Muhammad's life?
Muslim Civilization Objectives: How did Islam Spread? What was the Golden Age of Islam under the rule of the caliphs Learn about the Ottoman Empire
Omar Khayyam Persia was a center for math, science, and poetry Omar- most famous mathematician in the world at that time, as well as a leading astronomer Omar’s time was considered the golden age of the Muslim civilization….why?
The Spread of Islam Within 150 years after Muhammad's death, Islam spread into Africa, Spain, Persia, and Northern India and China Arab merchants (travel) Military conquests Spread halted when European forces cut them off in Spain
Reasons for Success During Muhammad's time the surrounding empires were to strong After Muhammad the Byzantine and Persian empires were to weak to stop the Muslim expansion
Golden Age 800-1100 Reason for the Golden Age Caliphs (good leadership) Conquered and Controlled land though trade Strong military Location of the capital
Major Achievements Math- advanced arithmetic, invented algebra Medical- organized multiple theories of medicine into one book called Canon of Medicine Literature- poetry and writing were very important, many works are around even today Sufis- Muslim who believed they drew close to God through prayer and fasting
The Ottoman Empire As the Caliphs declined other groups gained power The Ottoman (Muslim Turks and Mongols) took over Baghdad and then conquered what was left of the Byzantines at Constantinople as well as Greece. Sultan- Ottoman ruler Jews and Christians lived under Ottoman rule and were allowed to practice their religion freely