Presentation on theme: "The Byzantine Empire The Golden Horn"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Byzantine Empire The Golden Horn 330 AD – 1453 AD
2 Introduction:In our last unit, you learned how the emperor Constantine moved his capital from Rome to the ancient city of Byzantium in 33o C.E. This city eventually became known as Constantinople.After Constantine’s reign, power was usually divided between two emperors. One was based in Rome, and one in Constantinople.After the fall of Rome, the eastern half of the empire continued for another 1,000 years. Today we call this eastern empire the Byzantine Empire, after Byzantium, the original name of its capital city.This great empire straddled two continents, Europe and Asia. It lasted from about 500 to 1453 C.E. when it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.East and west did remain connected for a time through a shared Christian faith. BUT the church in the east developed in its own unique way. It became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church.Over time, Byzantine emperors and church officials came into conflict with the pope in Rome.The conflict led to a permanent split, or schism, between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.In this assignment, you will learn about the Byzantine Empire, one of its greatest emperors, and its distinctive church.
3 Remember ConstantineEmperor Constantine takes power of the Roman Empire in the year 312 AD. He took two steps that changed the course of European HistoryStep 1 – Granted tolerance to ChristiansStep 2 – Built new Capital (Constantinople)
5 Constantinople and Rome were on different ends of the falling Roman Empire Germanic invaders pounded the Roman Empire in the WestConstantinople was not being invaded and was thriving as a trade centerOne would crumble, one would thrive
6 Life After the “Fall” of Rome Byzantine EmpireWestern EuropeThe “new Rome”Symbol of Roman CivilizationByzantine Empire: Greek, Roman, and Christian influencesChange from one way of life to anotherSociety goes backwardsTrade ends and back to farmingCities not importantVS.
7 Language and Location Western Europe Byzantine Empire Latin and German languagesLOCATIONWestern Europe, central Italy along the Tiber RiverLanguage: GreekLOCATIONShores of the Bosporus Strait – Commanded key trade routes, busiest marketplace, linked Europe to AsiaEastern Europe is home to many different traditions.What does this cause?VS.
9 Religion: The Schism of 1054 *Schism (Def: permanent split)! In 1054, a feud with the Roman Pope over holy images. The Byzantine church outlawed praying to images = Pope excommunicated Byzantine Emperor. This is called the Schism of 1054.Resulted in TWO Christian Churches:Eastern (Greek) Orthodox in Byzantine EmpireRoman Catholic in Western Europe
10 Characteristics of the two churches Western EuropeByzantine EmpireRoman Catholic ChurchChristianityChurch is the most powerful – Papal SupremacyPriests cannot marryChristmas most important holidayLatin servicesEastern Orthodox ChurchChristianityEmperor ruled over churchRejected Pope’s authorityEaster most important holidayPriests could marry
11 Leaders after 476 AD Byzantine Empire Western Europe Strongest ruler: Justinian – determined to revive classical RomeAbsolute power along with wife TheodoraWeak rulers after Justinian died, but empire was able to thrive because of Justinian's laws and economyNo significant strong leaders other than the PopePower moved to Germany1st “leader” was Charlemagne (800 AD)
14 Justinian’s lasting achievements Reconquered western provinces (North Africa, Italy, and Spain)Beautified ConstantinopleJustinian’s Code: Collected and revised ancient Roman laws (most important)
15 Law and Order Byzantine Empire Western Europe TrulsonLaw and OrderByzantine EmpireWestern EuropeJustinian’s Code – “Body of civil law”Laws passed by Roman assemblies, emperors, or judgesPassed to western Europe by 100 AD- used by Medieval monarchs and churchesUsed in international law todayLegal system evolved into “might is right”Strongest wins (Bully System)Laws of Rome forgottenFeudal society
16 Learning Byzantine Empire Western Europe Studies emphasized: Hellenistic CultureGreek PhilosophyRoman LawChristian influencesLearning was not importantChurch (not education) guided people
17 Major architectural legacy after 476 AD Byzantine EmpireWestern EuropeRestore Roman gloryLarge domesMarbleMosaicExample: Hagia Sophia (Church of Holy Wisdom), later a mosque, now a museumReturn to farmsCities not important
18 Constantinople Nicknamed the “New Rome” Location made it Europe’s busiest market placeMajor architectural achievements:HippodromeArena built in 200’s for entertainmentHagia Sophia “Holy Wisdom”Built during Justinian AgeLargest cathedral for 1000 yrsCathedral/Mosque/Museum