2 1. The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was a. Romeb. Jerusalemc. Alexandriad. ConstantinopleThe capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was Constantinople. This city was built (in 330 A.D.) on the site of the ancient Greek city of Byzantium. It is from that ancient Greek city that the Eastern Roman Empire received the name Byzantine Empire.
3 2. Who established the city that was to later become the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire? a. Julius Caesarb. Diocletianc. Constantined. JustinianConstantinople, the city which later became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, was established by the Emperor Constantine in 330 A.D.
4 3. Which religion became the strongest rival of Christianity in the Mediterranean area during the time of the Byzantine Empire?a. Judaismb. Buddhismc. Islamd. HinduismIslam or the Muslim religion became the strongest rival of Christianity in the Mediterranean area. Buddhism and Hinduism are religions that arose in India. They never spread to the Mediterranean region during the time of the Byzantine Empire.
5 4. Which was an achievement of the Byzantine Empire? a. regaining Palestine from the Muslimsb. preserving Greek and Roman civilizationc. promoting paganismd. conquering PersiaThe Byzantine Empire preserved Greek and Roman civilization after the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire during the 5th century A.D.
6 5. The area of which modern country was never a part of the Byzantine Empire? a. Syriab. Turkeyc. Franced. GreeceThe area of France was never a part of the Byzantine Empire. France, or Gaul, as it was then called, was a part of the Western Roman Empire. It was never conquered by the Byzantine Empire. What are today Syria, Turkey, and Greece, were originally part of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium Empire).
7 6. The Justinian Code is important because it was a collection of the a. laws of the Roman Empireb. teachings of Jesus and the Christian fathersc. scientific discoveries of the ancient worldd. military tactics used by Roman generalsThe Justinian Code was a collection of laws from all over the empire that were organized and simplified by a committee of officials appointed by Justinian. The Justinian Code was later introduced to Western Europe and influenced law codes in European countries.
8 7. What language became the major language of the Byzantine Empire? a. Arabicb. Greekc. Latind. HebrewGreek replaced Latin as the major language of the Byzantine Empire 300 years after that empire was created. This occurred because the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire was influenced by Greek culture to a larger extent than it was by the culture of Rome and Italy. After the 11th century, the Eastern Christian Church was known as the Greek Orthodox Church.
9 8. What statement CORRECTLY describes the connection between the government and the church in the Byzantine Empire?a. The emperor controlled both the government and the church.b. The emperor controlled the government, but the popecontrolled the church.c. The pope controlled both the government and the church.d. The emperor tried to persecute officials of the church.In the Byzantine Empire the emperor controlled both the government and the church. The Greek Orthodox Church was supported by the government and the emperor selected its officials. The emperor was considered the absolute ruler of the empire and God's representative on earth.
10 9. What issue was the most important cause of the split between the eastern and western halves of the Christian church?a. Should Greek or Latin be used in church services?b. Should the pope be supreme in church affairs?c. Should a crusade be declared against the Muslims in Palestine?d. Should all religions be tolerated in the empire?The split between the eastern and western halves of the Christian church was caused by the issue of whether the pope should be supreme in church affairs. The pope was the head of the western church. He was elected by church officials. The head of the eastern church was the patriarch of Constantinople. He was appointed by the Byzantine emperor.
11 10. Why did Diocletian divide the Roman Empire into eastern and western sections in 285 A.D.? a. There were religious differences between people living inthe eastern and western parts of the empire.b. People in the west spoke Latin, while people the eastspoke Greek.c. Civil wars and foreign invasions showed that the empirehad become too large to be ruled by one person.d. Rome's conquest of the huge Persian Empire in the eastmade such a division necessary.Diocletian divided the Roman Empire because civil wars and foreign invasions showed that the empire had become too large to be ruled by one person.