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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 The Skeleton: Part.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 The Skeleton: Part."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 The Skeleton: Part A

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Introduction The skeleton accounts of 20% of body mass There are 206 bones in the human skeleton Ligaments –band of fibrous tissue that connects bones Divisions of the Skeleton Axial Skeleton and Appendicular

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Axial Skeleton Contains of 80 bones that collectively form the axis of the body trunk Protect the brain and spinal cord and organs within the thoracic cavity Three major regions of the axial skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic cage Hyoid

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.1a Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) (a) Anterior view Facial bones Cranium Sacrum Vertebral column Clavicle Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Ulna Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Skull General Characteristics Composed of: cranial and facial bones Cranial bones enclose and protect the brain Facial bones form the framework of the face, contain cavities for special sense organs, provide openings for food & air, secure teeth, anchor facial muscles Most bones of the skull are: paired

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.2a Bones of cranium (cranial vault) Lambdoid suture Facial bones Squamous suture (a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skull Coronal suture

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Sutures of the Skull Four sutures mark the articulations of parietal bones with frontal, occipital, and temporal bones: Coronal (frontal) suture—between parietal bones and frontal bone Sagittal suture—between right and left parietal bones Lambdoid suture—between parietal bones and occipital bone Squamous suture—between parietal and temporal bones on each side of skull

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Coronal suture Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Occipital bone (a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull Temporal bone Figure 7.5a

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4b Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Superior nuchal line External occipital protuberance (b) Posterior view Occipital condyle Parietal bone Sagittal suture

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Skull Calvaria – Cranial vault “skull cap” Cranial Base (floor) of the skull is divided into three regions: Anterior cranial fossa-accommodates the frontal lobes of brain Middle cranial fossa- accomodates the temporal lobes Posterior cranial fossa-deepest region houses cerebellum

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.2b Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa (b) Superior view of the cranial fossae

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cavities Four pair of cavities within the skull bones called: paranasal sinuses The four pair are: Sphenoid Ethmoid Maxillary Frontal Each cavity is lined with mucous membranes that form mucus, which drains into the nasal cavity

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.15 Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells (sinus) Maxillary sinus Sphenoid sinus Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells Maxillary sinus Sphenoid sinus (a) Anterior aspect (b) Medial aspect

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Orbits Composed of: Cranial and facial bones; 7 bones in each orbit –frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Roof of orbit Medial wall Supraorbital notch Optic canal Floor of orbit Nasal bone Lateral wall of orbit Zygomatic bone Inferior orbital fissure Infraorbital groove Infraorbital foramen Superior orbital fissure (b) Contribution of each of the seven bones forming the right orbit Lesser wing of sphenoid bone Orbital plate of frontal bone Zygomatic process of frontal bone Greater wing of sphenoid bone Orbital surface of zygomatic bone Sphenoid body Orbital plate of ethmoid bone Frontal process of maxilla Lacrimal bone Orbital process of palatine bone Orbital surface of maxillary bone Zygomatic bone Figure 7.13a

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Nasal Cavity The roof, superior/lateral walls and superior portion of the nasal septum are formed by: the ethmoid bone The floor is formed anteriorly by the palatine processes of the maxillae and the palatine bones The cavity is divided into right and left halves by the nasal septum

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.14a Maxillary bone (palatine process) Palatine bone (perpendicular plate) Palatine bone (horizontal plate) Sphenoid bone Frontal sinus Superior nasal concha Middle nasal concha Ethmoid bone Inferior nasal concha Nasal bone

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Nasal Cavity Nasal conchae- on the lateral walls: formed by the superior and middle nasal conchae of ethmoid bone The conchae and septum are lined with a mucus secreting mucosa that moistens & warms air, helps cleanse it of debris Cribriform plate –porous superior surface of ethmoid for passage of olfactory fibers (smell)

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.10 Perpendicular plate Middle nasal concha Cribriform plate Olfactory foramina Crista galli

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Vertebral Column General Characteristics Contains 33 vertebrae, some of which are fused in adults Intervertebral discs- Inner part Nucleus pulposus- gelatinous nucleus that gives the disc its elasticity and compressibility

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Vertebral Column Outer part Anulus fibrosus- Outer collar composed of collagen and fibrocartilage Herniated disc – usually involves rupture of the anulus fibrosus followed by protrusion of the spongy nucleus pulposus through the anulus

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.17a Intervertebral disc Anulus fibrosus Nucleus pulposus Median section of three vertebrae, illustrating the composition of the discs and the ligaments

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.17c Anulus fibrosus of disc Herniated portion of disc Nucleus pulposus of disc Spinal cord (c) Superior view of a herniated intervertebral disc

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Vertebral Column: Curvatures Increase the resilience and flexibility of the spine Four normal curvatures Two primary curvatures- Thoracic and sacral Born with primary curvatures Two secondary curvatures- Cervical and lumbar Develop after birth

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.37

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton Characteristics Includes: The upper and lower limbs and their girdles (pectoral and pelvic girdle)

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparison of Male and Female Pelves The true pelvis is: the region inferior to the pelvic brim containing pelvic organs The pubic angle is degrees in females and degrees in males The acetabula are: smaller and farther apart in females and larger and closer together in males

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.29 Coxal bone (os coxae or hip bone) llium Sacroiliac joint Iliac fossa Pubic bone Ischium Sacrum Base of sacrum Sacral promontory Pelvic brim Acetabulum Pubic crest Pubic symphysis Iliac crest Coccyx Pubic arch Anterior inferior iliac spine Anterior superior iliac spine Pubic tubercle PLAY Animation: Rotatable pelvis

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4a Parietal bone Squamous part of frontal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Infraorbital foramen Mental foramen (a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis Frontal bone Glabella Frontonasal suture Supraorbital foramen (notch) Supraorbital margin Superior orbital fissure Inferior orbital fissure Middle nasal concha Inferior nasal concha Vomer Optic canal Perpendicular plate Ethmoid bone

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.6a Incisive fossa Median palatine suture Intermaxillary suture Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Foramen ovale Foramen lacerum Carotid canal External acoustic meatus Stylomastoid foramen Jugular foramen Foramen magnum Occipital condyle Inferior nuchal line Superior nuchal line Foramen spinosum Maxilla (palatine process) Hard palate Zygomatic bone Temporal bone (zygomatic process) Mandibular fossa Vomer Styloid process External occipital crest External occipital protuberance (a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed) Mastoid process Temporal bone (petrous part) Pharyngeal tubercle of basilar region of the occipital bone Parietal bone Palatine bone (horizontal plate)


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