Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Axial Skeleton: The Skull Slides by Vince Austin; figures from Marieb & Hoehn 8 th ed.; modifications and some slides by W. Rose Portions copyright Pearson.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Axial Skeleton: The Skull Slides by Vince Austin; figures from Marieb & Hoehn 8 th ed.; modifications and some slides by W. Rose Portions copyright Pearson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Axial Skeleton: The Skull Slides by Vince Austin; figures from Marieb & Hoehn 8 th ed.; modifications and some slides by W. Rose Portions copyright Pearson Education

2 The Axial Skeleton Eighty bones segregated into three regions – Skull – Vertebral column – Bony thorax

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.1 The human skeleton. Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view Facial bones Cranium Sacrum Vertebral column Clavicle Bones of pectoral girdle Bones of pelvic girdle Upper limb Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Ulna Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Lower limb Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

4 The Skull Skull Body’s most complex bony structure Formed by the cranium and facial bones Cranium – protects brain; site of attachment for head and neck muscles Facial bones – Framework for the face, sense organs, and teeth – Provide openings for passage of air and food – Anchor facial muscles of expression

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.2a The skull: Cranial and facial divisions and fossae. Bones of cranium (cranial vault) Lambdoid suture Facial bones Squamous suture (a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skull Coronal suture

6 Anatomy of the Cranium Eight cranial bones – two parietal, two temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid Cranial bones thin and strong for their weight

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.2b The skull: Cranial and facial divisons and fossae. Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa (b) Superior view of the cranial fossae

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.2c The skull: Cranial and facial divisions and fossae. Frontal lobe of cerebrum Temporal lobe of cerebrum Cerebellum Posterior Middle Anterior Cranial fossae (c) Lateral view of cranial fossae showing the contained brain regions

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.3 Major cavities of the skull, frontal section. Frontal sinus Ethmoid sinuses Orbit Cranial cavity Oral cavity Maxillary sinus Inferior nasal concha Maxilla Mandible Ethmoid bone Frontal bone Zygomatic bone Vomer Nasal cavity

10 Frontal Bone Anterior portion of the cranium Articulates posteriorly with the parietal bones via the coronal suture Major markings include: supraorbital margins, anterior cranial fossa, frontal sinuses (internal and lateral to the glabella)

11 Frontal Bone Figure 7.2a

12 Parietal Bones and associated sutures Form most of the superior and lateral aspects of the skull Coronal, sagittal, lambdoid, squamous sutures Figure 7.3a

13 Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Occipital condyle Mastoid process Parietal bone Sagittal suture Sutural (Wormian) bone Occipital Bone Forms most of skull’s posterior wall and base

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cranial cavity floor Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa Occipital bone Foramen magnum (spinal cord) Jugular foramen Anterior cranial fossa View

15 Temporal Bones Form the inferolateral aspects of the skull and parts of the cranial floor Divided into four major regions – squamous, tympanic, mastoid, and petrous Major markings include: zygomatic, styloid, and mastoid processes, middle cranial fossa Major openings include: external auditory meatus, internal auditory meatus, stylomastoid and jugular foramina, carotid canal

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.8 Right temporal bone, lateral view Mastoid region External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Tympanic region Zygomatic process Squamous region

17 Sphenoid Bone Butterfly-shaped bone that spans the width of the middle cranial fossa Forms the central wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones Central body, greater wings, lesser wings, and pterygoid processes Major markings: sella turcica, hypophyseal fossa, pterygoid processes, sphenoid sinuses, middle cranial fossa Major openings include: optic canals, superior orbital fissure

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.7a Cranial cavity floor Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica Middle cranial fossa Superior view of cranial interior Frontal bone Optic canal (cn 2) Sphenoid Lesser wing Greater wing View

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.9 Sphenoid bone Greater wing Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica Body of sphenoid Superior orbital fissure (cn 3, 4, part5, 6) Superior view Body of sphenoid Greater wing Superior orbital fissure (cn 3,4, part5, 6) Lesser wing Pterygoid process Posterior view Optic canal (cn2) Lesser wing

20 Ethmoid Bone Deepest skull bone; lies between the sphenoid and nasal bones Forms most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and the orbits Major markings include: cribriform plate, crista galli, perpendicular plate, superior & middle nasal conchae, ethmoid sinuses

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.10 Ethmoid bone Orbital plate Ethmoidal air cells Perpendicular plate Middle nasal concha Cribriform plate Olfactory foramina Crista galli Left lateral mass

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.7a Cranial cavity floor Frontal bone Olfactory foramina Cribriform plate Ethmoid bone Crista galli Anterior cranial fossa View

23 Facial Bones Fourteen bones Only mandible and vomer are unpaired Paired bones: maxillae, zygomatics, nasals, lacrimals, palatines, inferior conchae

24 Mandible Lower jawbone; largest, strongest bone of face Major markings include: coronoid process, mandibular condyle, alveolar margin, mandibular angle, mandibular and mental foramina Maxillary Bones Medially fused bones make up upper jaw and central portion of the facial skeleton Facial keystone bones that articulate with all other facial bones except mandible Major markings include: palatine, frontal, and zygomatic processes (artic. w/ respective bones), alveolar margins, maxillary sinuses

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.11 Mandible and maxilla Coronoid process Mandibular foramen Mental foramen Ramus of mandible Mandibular condyle Body of mandible Alveolar margin Mandible right lateral view Temporomandibular joint Articulates with frontal bone Alveolar margin Maxilla, right lateral view Orbital surface Zygomatic process (cut) Mandibular angle

26 Facial Bones Zygomatic Bones - irregularly shaped bones (cheekbones), form prominences of cheeks and inferolateral margins of orbits Nasal bones – thin medially fused bones, form bridge of nose Lacrimal bones – contribute to medial walls of orbits; contain lacrimal fossae which house lacrimal sacs Palatine bones – two bone plates, form portions of hard palate, posterolateral walls of nasal cavity, and small parts of orbits Vomer – plow-shaped bone, forms part of nasal septum Inferior nasal conchae – paired, curved bones in nasal cavity, form part of lateral walls of nasal cavity

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4a Anterior aspect of skull Parietal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Mental foramen Frontal bone Supraorbital margin Superior orbital fissure Inferior orbital fissure Inferior nasal concha Vomer Optic canal Ethmoid bone

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.5a Lateral aspect of skull, external view Coronal suture Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Alveolar margins Mandible Mental foramen Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Occipital bone External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Mandibular condyle Mandibular ramus (a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull Mandibular angle Coronoid process Zygomatic process Temporal bone

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.5b Lateral aspect of skull, internal view Parietal bone Coronal suture Frontal bone Frontal sinus Crista galli Nasal bone Sphenoid sinus Ethmoid bone (perpendicular plate) Vomer Maxilla Mandible Alveolar margins Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Sella turcica of sphenoid bone Pterygoid process of sphenoid bone Mandibular foramen Palatine bone Squamous suture Temporal bone Midsagittal section showing the internal anatomy of left half of skull Sphenoid bone

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.6a Inferior aspect of skull, mandible removed Maxilla Sphenoid bone (greater wing) External acoustic meatus Foramen magnum Occipital condyle Maxilla Hard palate Zygomatic bone Temporal bone (zygomatic process) Vomer Styloid process Mastoid process Temporal bone (petrous part) Parietal bone Palatine bone

31 Orbits Bony cavities in which the eyes are firmly encased and cushioned by fatty tissue Formed by parts of seven bones – frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Orbits (cn 3,4,part5,6) (cn 2) maxilla frontal temporal

33 Nasal Cavity Constructed of bone and hyaline cartilage Roof – formed by cribiform plate of ethmoid Lateral walls – formed by superior and middle conchae of ethmoid, perpendicular plate of palatine, and inferior nasal conchae Floor – formed by palatine process of the maxillae and by palatine

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nasal cavity: left lateral wall Nasal septum removed. Maxillary bone (palatine process) Palatine bone Pterygoid process Sphenoid sinus Sphenoid bone Frontal sinus Superior nasal concha Middle nasal concha Ethmoid bone Inferior nasal concha Nasal bone Superior, middle, and inferior meatus

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Vomer Crista galli Cribriform plate Ethmoid bone Frontal sinus Nasal bone Septal cartilage Alveolar margin of maxilla Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone Sella turcica Sphenoid sinus Palatine bone Palatine process of maxilla Nasal cavity: Midline structures. Septum in place; note contributions of ethmoid bone, vomer, septal cartilage Hard palate

36 Paranasal Sinuses Mucosa-lined, air-filled sacs found in five skull bones: frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and paired maxillary bones Named for bones in which they reside Air enters paranasal sinuses from nasal cavity Mucus drains into nasal cavity from paranasal sinuses Lighten skull; enhance resonance of the voice

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.15 Paranasal sinuses. Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells (sinus) Maxillary sinus Sphenoid sinus Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells Maxillary sinus Sphenoid sinus (a) Anterior aspect (b) Medial aspect

38 Hyoid Bone Not actually part of the skull Lies just inferior to mandible in anterior neck Only bone that does not articulate with another bone Attachment point for neck muscles that raise and lower larynx during swallowing and speech

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior aspects of skull Parietal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Mental foramen Frontal bone Supraorbital margin Superior orbital fissure Inferior orbital fissure Inferior nasal concha Vomer Optic canal Ethmoid bone

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Coronal suture Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Lacrimal fossa Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Alveolar margins Mandible Mental foramen Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Occipital bone Mandibular ramus Right side of skull Mandibular angle Coronoid process Zygomatic process Temporal bone

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Parietal bone Frontal bone Frontal sinus Crista galli Nasal bone Sphenoid sinus Ethmoid bone Vomer Maxilla Mandible Alveolar margins Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Sella turcica of sphenoid bone Mandibular foramen Palatine bone Temporal bone Internal anatomy of left half of skull (midsagittal section) Maxilla Sphenoid bone

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.7a Cranial cavity floor Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica Middle cranial fossa Temporal bone Posterior cranial fossa Parietal bone Occipital bone Foramen magnum Frontal bone Olfactory foramina Optic canal Hypoglossal canal Cribriform plate Ethmoid bone Crista galli Sphenoid Anterior cranial fossa Lesser wing Greater wing View

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Maxilla Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Carotid canal Foramen magnum Occipital condyle Maxilla Hard palate Zygomatic bone Temporal bone (zygomatic process) Vomer Inferior view of skull (mandible removed) Temporal bone Parietal bone Palatine bone


Download ppt "Axial Skeleton: The Skull Slides by Vince Austin; figures from Marieb & Hoehn 8 th ed.; modifications and some slides by W. Rose Portions copyright Pearson."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google