Presentation on theme: "How to identify the direction of the free limb bones?"— Presentation transcript:
How to identify the direction of the free limb bones?
Compare the numbers and structures of upper limb bones to lower limb bones.
Section 5 Bones of Skull Cranium composed of 22 bones, divided into the calvaria (larger, upper and posterior part, contains and protects the brain),and facial skeleton(viscerocranium)(smaller, lower, and anterior part, surrounded the eye, nose and mouth).
― Unpaired bones: frontal bone, ethmoid bone, sphenoid bone, occipital bone ―Paired bones: temporal bone parietal bone Clavaria (8)
Clavaria Frontal bone 1 Parietal bone 2 Temporal bone 2 Occipital bone 1 Sphenoid bone 1 Ethmoid bone 1
Rami of mandible: has two vertical processes separated by mandibular notch Coronoid process Condylar process head of mandible neck of mandible mandibular foramen mandibular canal angle of mandible
Mandible Rami of mandible Coronoid process Head of mandible Angle of mandible Mandibular foramen Neck of mandible Mandibular notch Mental foramen
Hyoid bone Greater horn Lesser horn Body Neck bone
Views of Adult Skull Superior aspect of calvaria Bones: frontal, paired parietal, occipital Sutures: Coronal suture, Sagittal suture, Lambdoid suture Internal aspect of calvaria sulcus for superior sagittal sinus granular foveola arterial grooves Skull viewed from behind external occipital protuberance superior nuchal line
Internal aspect of cranial base forms three fossae Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa
Anterior cranial fossa Formed by orbital part of frontal bone, cribriform plate of ethmoid, and lesser wings of sphenoid Structures: –crista galli –cribriform plate –cribriform foramina
Middle cranial fossa Formed by the body and greater wings of sphenoid, petrous part of temporal Structures: –hypophysial fossa –optic canal –sella turcica –carotid sulcus –superior orbital fissure –foramen rotundum
Posterior cranial fossa Formed by occipital and the petrous part of temporal Structures: –foramen magnum –clivus – hypoglossal canal –internal occipital protuberance –groove for transverse sinus –groove for sigmoid sinus –jugular foramen –internal acoustic opening
Cribriform plateSuperior orbital fissure Optic canal Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Hypophysial fossa Foramen spinosum Foramen lacerum Internal acoustic opening Jugular foramen Groove for sigmoid sinus Groove for transverse sinus Foramen magnum Hypoglossal canal Internal occipital protuberance
Bony orbit pyramid-shaped paired cavities Base: supra-orbital foramen (notch), infra-orbital foramen Apex: optic canal Walls –Superior(roof): lacrimal fossa for lacrimal gland –Medial: lacrimal groove for lacrimal sac superior orbital fissure –Inferior(floor): inferior orbital fissure inferior orbital groove infrerior orbital canal –Lateral:
Supraorbital notch Optic canal Superior orbital fissure Inferior orbital fissure Infraorbital foramen Infraorbital groove Lacrimal groove
Bony nasal cavity Roof: cribriform plate of ethmoid Floor: bony palate Lateral wall –Three nasal conchae (superior, middle and inferior) –Nasal meatus underlying each concha (superior, middle and inferior) –Spheno-ethmoidal recess above superior nasal concha Medial wall: nasal septum Anterior ―piriform aperture Posterior ―posterior nasal aperture communicates with pharynx
The roof, the median septum, the floor Cribriform plate Perpendicular plate vomer Nasal cartilagemaxillaePalatine bones
Superior concha Superior meatus Middle concha Middle meatus Inferior nasal conchaInferior meatus
Paranasal sinuses Frontal sinus –Lies in frontal bone, deep to superciliary arch –Drains to anterior part of middle meatus
Maxillary sinus –Largest paired sinus, lie in the body of maxilla; –Opening into middle nasal meatus
Ethmoidal cellules – Lie in ethmoidal bone, contains large number of air cells, divided into anterior, middle and posterior groups –Anterior and middle groups drain into middle nasal meatus, while posterior group drains into superior nasal meatus Sphenoidal sinus Lies in body of sphenoid bone –Drain into sphenoethmoidal recess
General characters of the skull at birth The skull at birth is large in proportion to rest of the skeleton ―1/4 (adult 1/7) The facial portion equals about one eight that of the cranium in size, whereas in adult it is one half (1/4) Many bones consist of more than one piece Cranial frontanelles ―unossified membrane between the bones at the angles of parietal –Anterior frontanelle ―closes during middle of 2nd year –Posterior frontanelle ―closes by the end of 6 month after birth
Introduction Anatomical position, terms of direction, and planes. Highlights Osteology Structure and classification of bones. Formation of the bones of trunk. The common characteristic of the vertebrae. The main characteristic of different vertebrae. Formation and characteristic of ribs. Subsection of the sternum. Definition of sternal angle and costal arch.
The primary structure of the scapula, humerus, radius and ulna. Name of the bones of hand. The primary structure of the hip bone, femur, tibia and fibula. Name of the bones of foot. The primary structure of the internal and external surface of the base of skull. The main structure of the superior, the posterior aspect and the lateral view of skull. The structure of orbit and bony nasal cavity. Names, position and opens of the paranasal sinuses.