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How to identify the direction of the free limb bones?

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Presentation on theme: "How to identify the direction of the free limb bones?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How to identify the direction of the free limb bones?

2 Compare the numbers and structures of upper limb bones to lower limb bones.

3 Section 5 Bones of Skull Cranium composed of 22 bones, divided into the calvaria (larger, upper and posterior part, contains and protects the brain),and facial skeleton(viscerocranium)(smaller, lower, and anterior part, surrounded the eye, nose and mouth).

4 ― Unpaired bones: frontal bone, ethmoid bone, sphenoid bone, occipital bone ―Paired bones: temporal bone parietal bone Clavaria (8)

5 Clavaria Frontal bone 1 Parietal bone 2 Temporal bone 2 Occipital bone 1 Sphenoid bone 1 Ethmoid bone 1

6 Facial skeleton (14) –Unpaired bones: mandible, vomer –Paired bones: maxilla, nasal bone, lacrimal bone, palatine bone, zygomatic bone, inferior nasal concha

7 Frontal bone Zygomatic bone Nasal bone Maxilla Mandible Sphenoid bone parietal bone Temporal bone Occipital bone

8 Temporal bones Mastoid process External acoustic opening Internal acoustic pore Styloid process Squama part Petrous part Zygomatic prosess part Tympanic part Mastoid part

9 Parietal bones Frontal bone Occipital bone External occipital protuberance

10 Sphenoid bone Lesser wing Greater wing Pterygoid process Body

11 Crista galli Perpendicular plate Cribriform plate Nasal conchae Ethmoid labyrinths Ethmoid bone(on page 969)

12 Nasal bone Inferior nasal concha Lacrimal bone

13 Horrizontal plate Pyramidal prosess

14 Mandible Body of mandible –Superior border: alveolar arch – Inferior border : –Outer surface: mental foramen –Inner surface: mental spine

15 Rami of mandible: has two vertical processes separated by mandibular notch Coronoid process Condylar process head of mandible neck of mandible mandibular foramen mandibular canal angle of mandible

16 Mandible Rami of mandible Coronoid process Head of mandible Angle of mandible Mandibular foramen Neck of mandible Mandibular notch Mental foramen

17 Hyoid bone Greater horn Lesser horn Body Neck bone

18 Views of Adult Skull Superior aspect of calvaria Bones: frontal, paired parietal, occipital Sutures: Coronal suture, Sagittal suture, Lambdoid suture Internal aspect of calvaria sulcus for superior sagittal sinus granular foveola arterial grooves Skull viewed from behind external occipital protuberance superior nuchal line

19 Internal aspect of cranial base forms three fossae Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa

20 Anterior cranial fossa Formed by orbital part of frontal bone, cribriform plate of ethmoid, and lesser wings of sphenoid Structures: –crista galli –cribriform plate –cribriform foramina

21 Middle cranial fossa Formed by the body and greater wings of sphenoid, petrous part of temporal Structures: –hypophysial fossa –optic canal –sella turcica –carotid sulcus –superior orbital fissure –foramen rotundum

22 –foramen ovale –foramen spinosum –sulcus for middle meningeal artery –foramen lacerum –intracranial opening of carotid canal –trigeminal impression Meddle cranial fossa

23 Posterior cranial fossa Formed by occipital and the petrous part of temporal Structures: –foramen magnum –clivus – hypoglossal canal –internal occipital protuberance –groove for transverse sinus –groove for sigmoid sinus –jugular foramen –internal acoustic opening

24 Cribriform plateSuperior orbital fissure Optic canal Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Hypophysial fossa Foramen spinosum Foramen lacerum Internal acoustic opening Jugular foramen Groove for sigmoid sinus Groove for transverse sinus Foramen magnum Hypoglossal canal Internal occipital protuberance

25 Inferior view cranial base alveolar arch bony palate incisive foramina greater palatine foramen posterior nasal apertures foramen lacerum jugular foramen occipital condyle external opening of hypoglossal canal external opening of carotid canal styloid process stylomastoid foramen mandibular fossa articular tubercle

26 Foramen magnumOccipital condyle Mastoid process Stylomastoid foramen Styloid process Mandibular fossa Articular tubercle External opening of carotid canal Foramen spinosum Foramen ovale Foramen lacerum Posterior nasal apertures Palatine bone Incisive foramen

27 Lateral view of the skull external acoustic opening mastoid process zygomatic arch temporal fossa pterion

28 Pterion External acoustic pore Mastoid process Condylar process Coronoid process Mental foramen Zygomatic arch

29 Anterior view Frontal region: –superciliary arch –glabella –bony orbit –bony nasal cavity

30 Bony orbit pyramid-shaped paired cavities Base: supra-orbital foramen (notch), infra-orbital foramen Apex: optic canal Walls –Superior(roof): lacrimal fossa for lacrimal gland –Medial: lacrimal groove for lacrimal sac superior orbital fissure –Inferior(floor): inferior orbital fissure inferior orbital groove infrerior orbital canal –Lateral:

31 Supraorbital notch Optic canal Superior orbital fissure Inferior orbital fissure Infraorbital foramen Infraorbital groove Lacrimal groove

32 Bony nasal cavity Roof: cribriform plate of ethmoid Floor: bony palate Lateral wall –Three nasal conchae (superior, middle and inferior) –Nasal meatus underlying each concha (superior, middle and inferior) –Spheno-ethmoidal recess above superior nasal concha Medial wall: nasal septum Anterior ―piriform aperture Posterior ―posterior nasal aperture communicates with pharynx

33 The roof, the median septum, the floor Cribriform plate Perpendicular plate vomer Nasal cartilagemaxillaePalatine bones

34 Superior concha Superior meatus Middle concha Middle meatus Inferior nasal conchaInferior meatus

35 Paranasal sinuses Frontal sinus –Lies in frontal bone, deep to superciliary arch –Drains to anterior part of middle meatus

36 Maxillary sinus –Largest paired sinus, lie in the body of maxilla; –Opening into middle nasal meatus

37 Ethmoidal cellules – Lie in ethmoidal bone, contains large number of air cells, divided into anterior, middle and posterior groups –Anterior and middle groups drain into middle nasal meatus, while posterior group drains into superior nasal meatus Sphenoidal sinus Lies in body of sphenoid bone –Drain into sphenoethmoidal recess

38 General characters of the skull at birth The skull at birth is large in proportion to rest of the skeleton ―1/4 (adult 1/7) The facial portion equals about one eight that of the cranium in size, whereas in adult it is one half (1/4) Many bones consist of more than one piece Cranial frontanelles ―unossified membrane between the bones at the angles of parietal –Anterior frontanelle ―closes during middle of 2nd year –Posterior frontanelle ―closes by the end of 6 month after birth

39 Introduction Anatomical position, terms of direction, and planes. Highlights Osteology Structure and classification of bones. Formation of the bones of trunk. The common characteristic of the vertebrae. The main characteristic of different vertebrae. Formation and characteristic of ribs. Subsection of the sternum. Definition of sternal angle and costal arch.

40 The primary structure of the scapula, humerus, radius and ulna. Name of the bones of hand. The primary structure of the hip bone, femur, tibia and fibula. Name of the bones of foot. The primary structure of the internal and external surface of the base of skull. The main structure of the superior, the posterior aspect and the lateral view of skull. The structure of orbit and bony nasal cavity. Names, position and opens of the paranasal sinuses.

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