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How to identify the direction of the free limb bones?

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Presentation on theme: "How to identify the direction of the free limb bones?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How to identify the direction of the free limb bones?

2 Compare the numbers and structures of upper limb bones to lower limb bones.

3 Section 5 Bones of Skull Cranium composed of 22 bones, divided into the calvaria (larger, upper and posterior part, contains and protects the brain),and facial skeleton(viscerocranium)(smaller, lower, and anterior part, surrounded the eye, nose and mouth).

4 Clavaria (8) frontal bone, ethmoid bone, sphenoid bone, occipital bone
―Unpaired bones: frontal bone, ethmoid bone, sphenoid bone, occipital bone ―Paired bones: temporal bone parietal bone

5 Clavaria Frontal bone 1 Parietal bone 2 Temporal bone 2 Ethmoid bone 1
Sphenoid bone 1 Occipital bone 1

6 Facial skeleton (14) Unpaired bones: mandible, vomer Paired bones:
maxilla, nasal bone, lacrimal bone, palatine bone, zygomatic bone, inferior nasal concha

7 parietal bone Frontal bone Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Zygomatic bone Occipital bone Nasal bone Maxilla Mandible

8 Temporal bones Squama part Zygomatic prosess part
External acoustic opening Mastoid part Tympanic part Mastoid process Petrous part Internal acoustic pore Styloid process

9 Parietal bones Frontal bone Occipital bone
External occipital protuberance

10 Sphenoid bone Lesser wing Greater wing Pterygoid process Body

11 Ethmoid bone(on page 969) Crista galli Cribriform plate Nasal conchae
Perpendicular plate Ethmoid labyrinths

12 Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Inferior nasal concha

13 Pyramidal prosess Horrizontal plate

14 Mandible Body of mandible Superior border: alveolar arch
Inferior border : Outer surface: mental foramen Inner surface: mental spine

15 Rami of mandible: has two vertical processes separated by mandibular notch
Coronoid process Condylar process head of mandible neck of mandible mandibular foramen mandibular canal angle of mandible

16 Mandible Head of mandible Coronoid process Neck of mandible
Mandibular foramen Mandibular notch Rami of mandible Mental foramen Angle of mandible

17 Neck bone Hyoid bone Greater horn Lesser horn Body

18 Views of Adult Skull external occipital protuberance
Superior aspect of calvaria Bones: frontal, paired parietal, occipital Sutures: Coronal suture, Sagittal suture, Lambdoid suture Internal aspect of calvaria sulcus for superior sagittal sinus granular foveola arterial grooves Skull viewed from behind external occipital protuberance superior nuchal line

19 Internal aspect of cranial base
forms three fossae Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa

20 Anterior cranial fossa
Formed by orbital part of frontal bone, cribriform plate of ethmoid, and lesser wings of sphenoid Structures: crista galli cribriform plate cribriform foramina

21 Middle cranial fossa Formed by the body and greater wings of sphenoid, petrous part of temporal Structures: hypophysial fossa optic canal sella turcica carotid sulcus superior orbital fissure foramen rotundum

22 Meddle cranial fossa foramen ovale foramen spinosum
sulcus for middle meningeal artery foramen lacerum intracranial opening of carotid canal trigeminal impression

23 Posterior cranial fossa
Formed by occipital and the petrous part of temporal Structures: foramen magnum clivus hypoglossal canal internal occipital protuberance groove for transverse sinus groove for sigmoid sinus jugular foramen internal acoustic opening

24 Superior orbital fissure
Cribriform plate Optic canal Hypophysial fossa Foramen rotundum Foramen spinosum Foramen ovale Foramen lacerum Internal acoustic opening Groove for sigmoid sinus Jugular foramen Hypoglossal canal Foramen magnum Groove for transverse sinus Internal occipital protuberance

25 Inferior view cranial base
alveolar arch bony palate incisive foramina greater palatine foramen posterior nasal apertures foramen lacerum jugular foramen occipital condyle external opening of hypoglossal canal external opening of carotid canal styloid process stylomastoid foramen mandibular fossa articular tubercle

26 Incisive foramen Foramen lacerum Palatine bone Posterior nasal apertures Articular tubercle Foramen ovale Mandibular fossa Foramen spinosum Styloid process External opening of carotid canal Mastoid process Stylomastoid foramen Foramen magnum Occipital condyle

27 Lateral view of the skull
external acoustic opening mastoid process zygomatic arch temporal fossa pterion

28 Pterion External acoustic pore Zygomatic arch Mastoid process Mental foramen Condylar process Coronoid process

29 Anterior view Frontal region: superciliary arch glabella bony orbit
bony nasal cavity

30 Bony orbit pyramid-shaped paired cavities
Base: supra-orbital foramen (notch), infra-orbital foramen Apex: optic canal Walls Superior(roof): lacrimal fossa for lacrimal gland Medial: lacrimal groove for lacrimal sac superior orbital fissure Inferior(floor): inferior orbital fissure inferior orbital groove infrerior orbital canal Lateral:

31 Supraorbital notch Optic canal Superior orbital fissure Lacrimal groove Inferior orbital fissure Infraorbital groove Infraorbital foramen

32 Bony nasal cavity Roof: cribriform plate of ethmoid Floor: bony palate
Lateral wall Three nasal conchae (superior, middle and inferior) Nasal meatus underlying each concha (superior, middle and inferior) Spheno-ethmoidal recess above superior nasal concha Medial wall: nasal septum Anterior ―piriform aperture Posterior ―posterior nasal aperture communicates with pharynx

33 The roof, the median septum, the floor
Cribriform plate Perpendicular plate vomer Nasal cartilage maxillae Palatine bones

34 Superior concha Superior meatus Middle concha Middle meatus Inferior meatus Inferior nasal concha

35 Paranasal sinuses Frontal sinus
Lies in frontal bone, deep to superciliary arch Drains to anterior part of middle meatus

36 Maxillary sinus Largest paired sinus, lie in the body of maxilla;
Opening into middle nasal meatus

37 Sphenoidal sinus Lies in body of sphenoid bone
Ethmoidal cellules Lie in ethmoidal bone, contains large number of air cells, divided into anterior, middle and posterior groups Anterior and middle groups drain into middle nasal meatus, while posterior group drains into superior nasal meatus Sphenoidal sinus Lies in body of sphenoid bone Drain into sphenoethmoidal recess

38 General characters of the skull at birth
The skull at birth is large in proportion to rest of the skeleton ―1/4 (adult 1/7) The facial portion equals about one eight that of the cranium in size, whereas in adult it is one half (1/4) Many bones consist of more than one piece Cranial frontanelles ―unossified membrane between the bones at the angles of parietal Anterior frontanelle ―closes during middle of 2nd year Posterior frontanelle ―closes by the end of 6 month after birth

39 Highlights Introduction Osteology
Anatomical position, terms of direction, and planes. Osteology Structure and classification of bones. Formation of the bones of trunk. The common characteristic of the vertebrae. The main characteristic of different vertebrae. Formation and characteristic of ribs. Subsection of the sternum. Definition of sternal angle and costal arch.

40 The primary structure of the scapula, humerus, radius and ulna.
Name of the bones of hand. The primary structure of the hip bone, femur, tibia and fibula. Name of the bones of foot. The primary structure of the internal and external surface of the base of skull. The main structure of the superior, the posterior aspect and the lateral view of skull. The structure of orbit and bony nasal cavity. Names, position and opens of the paranasal sinuses.

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