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The Skeletal System. Axial skeleton Skull Vertebral column Rib cage –Ribs –Sternum.

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Presentation on theme: "The Skeletal System. Axial skeleton Skull Vertebral column Rib cage –Ribs –Sternum."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Skeletal System

2 Axial skeleton Skull Vertebral column Rib cage –Ribs –Sternum

3 Skull: cranium + face Cranial bones: –Frontal –Parietal –Temporal –Occipital –Sphenoid –Ethmoid

4 Frontal bone Parietal bone Occipital bone –Foramen magnum –Occipital condyle

5 Temporal bone Squama temporalis –Zygomatic proces –Mandibular fossa Mastoid part –Mastoid process Petrous bone –Contains the middle/inner ear structures Tympanic part –External acoustic meatus –Styloid process

6 Sphenoid Base of the cranium Body –Sinuses –Sella turcica –Pterygoid processes Greater and lesser wings Many foramen –Optic canal –Superior orbital fissure –Foramen ovale –Foramen lacerum –Foramen rotundum

7 Ethmoid Back and upper nose Perpendicular plate Ethmoid sinuses Crista gali Cribriform plate and foramina Superior and middle nasal conchae

8 Facial bones Maxilla Palatine bones Zygomatic bones Lacrimal bones Nasal bones Inferior nasal concha Vomer Mandible

9 Maxilla Palatine bones Alveolar processes Palatine process

10 Zygomatic and lacrimal bones Zygomatic bone –zygomatic arch –Lower ocular orbit Lacrimal bones –nasolacrimal canal

11 Nasal bone, Vomer and Inferior nasal conchae

12 Other skull bones Hyoid bone

13 Auditory ossicles –Three of the smallest bones in your body –Middle ear cavity of the petrous part of the temporal bone (paired or unpaired?) –From lateral – medial Malleus, incus & stapes Other skull bones

14 Bones with sinuses Frontal Maxillary Sphenoid Ethmoid Sinus: cavity with the bone of the skull  make it lighter + resonance box for the voice

15 Bones forming the orbit of the eye Frontal bone Zygomatic Maxilla Lacrimal Sphenoid Ethmoid

16 Bones forming the nasal cavity Ethmoid Vomer Palatine Maxilla Nasal bone Inferior nasal conchae

17 Various “hardcore” bones Remember that many of the cranial & facial bones are “paired” –Paired = left & right Left & right parietal bones Left & right temporal bones Left & right lacrimal bones Nasal bones Zygomatic bones Maxilla bones Palatine bones Inferior nasal concha

18 Various “hardcore” bones Remember that many of the cranial & facial bones are “paired” –UN-paired (single) Frontal bone Occipital bone Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone Vomer bone Mandible Hyoid bone

19 Skull foramen table-2333 table-2333

20 Vertebral column 31 vertebra divided into regions Forming various curves –Cervical –Thoracic –Lumbar –Pelvic

21 Typical vertebra Vertebral body : support Vertebral canal (foramen): for spinal cord Processes: for muscle attachment –Spinous process –Transverse processes –Superior articular process –Inferior articular process Facet: articulation with other vertebrae and ribs

22 Intervertebral foramen: formed by 2 adjacent vertebra  spinal nerves exit through it Intervertebral discs: made of an envelope of fibrocartilagenous tissues (interanulus fibrosus) and in the center of a gelatinous substance (nucleus pulposus)

23 What happens when a disc ruptures?

24 7 Cervical vertebrae Typical features: Small body Bifid spinous process Transverse foramen Special vertebrae: Atlas and Axis: Atlas = C1 round, occipital condyles Axis: Dens of axis C7: longer spinous process  prominence

25 Note C7: prominent vertebra (landmark on the vertebral column

26 12 Thoracic vertebrae NO transverse foramen Body larger then cervical vertebra Spinous processes longer, tend to slent downward Facets of articulation with ribs

27 5 Lumbar vertebrae Large wide body Short spinous prcesses


29 5 sacral vertebrae  sacrum 5 sacral vertebrae fuse to form the sacrum Features: –Auricular surface –Median sacral crest –Sacral canal –Sacral foramina –Apex –Sacral promontory Coccyx –4 fused vertebrae  tailbone

30 Sternum - Ribs - 7 pairs true ribs - 3 pairs – false ribs - 2 pairs – floating ribs

31 Appendicular skeleton: upper extremity Pectoral girdle: –Scapula –Clavicle Upper arm: –Humerus Lower arm: –Ulna –Radius Wrist: –Matacarpals bones Hand –Metacarpals –Phalanges

32 Pectoral girdle Scapula –Left or right? –The smooth side (subscapular fossa) is against the rib cage –The glenoid fossa is lateral (it is where the humerus attaches) Clavicle –Left or right: –Sternal end (square end) against sternum, acromial end (flatter end) against acromiom

33 Clavicle –The curvature near the sternal end sticks out –See previous drawing Humerus –Left or right? –The head of the humerus must face medially –The olecranon fossa (the largest fossa at the elbow) is posterior

34 Wrist and Hand See book

35 Appendicular skeleton: lower extremity Pelvic girdle –Coxal bones Thigh –Femur Lower leg: –Tibia –Fibula Ankle –Tarsal bones Foot –Metatarsal –Phalanges

36 Coxal bone Left or right? –The acetabulum must face externally –The symphysis pubis is anterior

37 Femur Left or right? –The head of the femur must face internally –The smooth surface in the lower femur is anterior while the deep groove is posterior

38 Tibia - Fibula Tibia: –Left or right? –The styloid process, at the base is the exernal malleolus or internal ankle –The tibial tuberosity is anterior Fibula: –The hed of the fibula is against the lateral condyle –The styloid process is the lateral malleolus or external ankle –Slented side of styloid process is posterior

39 Ankle - Foot

40 Scoliosis

41 Lordosis Kyphosis

42 Kyphosis

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