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Chapter 7: The Skeleton Part A. The Axial Skeleton  Consists of 80 bones  Three major regions  Skull  Vertebral column  Thoracic cage.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7: The Skeleton Part A. The Axial Skeleton  Consists of 80 bones  Three major regions  Skull  Vertebral column  Thoracic cage."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7: The Skeleton Part A

2 The Axial Skeleton  Consists of 80 bones  Three major regions  Skull  Vertebral column  Thoracic cage

3 Figure 7.1a Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) (a) Anterior view Facial bones Cranium Sacrum Vertebral column Clavicle Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Ulna Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges The Axial Skeleton

4 The Skull  Two sets of bones 1. Cranial bones  Enclose the brain in the cranial cavity  Gives attachment sites for head and neck muscles 2. Facial bones  Framework of face  Contains cavities for the special sense organs of sight, taste, and smell  Provides openings for the passage of air and food  Secures the teeth  Anchors the facial muscles of expression, which we use to show emotion

5 Figure 7.2a Bones of cranium (cranial vault) Lambdoid suture Facial bones Squamous suture (a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skull Coronal suture

6 Cranial Bones  Occipital bone  Parietal bones (2)  Frontal bone  Temporal bones (2)  Ethmoid bone  Sphenoid bone  Remember:  Old P-People From T-Texas Eat Spiders

7 Figure 7.4a Parietal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible (a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis Frontal bone Vomer Ethmoid bone

8 Parietal Bones and Major Associated Sutures  Superior and lateral aspects of cranial vault  Four sutures mark the articulations of parietal bones with frontal, occipital, and temporal bones: 1. Coronal suture—between parietal bones and frontal bone 2. Sagittal suture—between right and left parietal bones 3. Lambdoid suture—between parietal bones and occipital bone 4. Squamous (squamosal) sutures—between parietal and temporal bones on each side of skull

9 Coronal suture Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Occipital bone Occipitomastoid suture (a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull Zygomatic process Temporal bone Figure 7.5a

10 Occipital Bone  Most of skull’s posterior wall and posterior cranial fossa  Contains the foramen magnum “large hole” through which the brain connects with the spinal cord  Articulates at the occipital condyles with 1st vertebra  Sites of attachment for the many neck and back muscles

11 Figure 7.4b Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Sutural bone Occipitomastoid suture (b) Posterior view Parietal bone Sagittal suture

12 Figure 7.6a Median palatine suture Intermaxillary suture Maxilla Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Foramen magnum Maxilla Zygomatic bone Temporal bone (zygomatic process) Vomer (a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed) Temporal bone Parietal bone Palatine bone

13 Temporal Bones  Inferolateral aspects of skull and parts of cranial floor  Contains the zygomatic process, external acoustic meatus, the styloid process, and the mastoid process  Articulates with the mandible at the TMJ

14 Sphenoid Bone  Complex, butterfly-shaped bone  Keystone bone  Articulates with all other cranial bones  Three pairs of processes  Contains the sella turcica and the hypophyseal fossa that surround the pituitary gland

15 Ethmoid Bone  Deepest skull bone  Superior part of nasal septum, roof of nasal cavities  Contributes to medial wall of orbits  Contains the superior and middle nasal conchae  Contains the crista galli (rooster’s comb)  The attachment site for the outermost covering of the brain

16 Figure 7.10

17 Sutural Bones  Tiny irregularly shaped bones that appear within sutures  http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/videos/humanbody/skullbon es.html http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/videos/humanbody/skullbon es.html

18 Figure 7.4b Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Sutural bone Occipitomastoid suture (b) Posterior view Parietal bone Sagittal suture

19 Facial Bones (14 Total) Unpaired Bones:  Mandible  Vomer Paired Bones:  Maxillary bones (2)  Zygomatic bones (2)  Nasal bones (2)  Lacrimal bones (2)  Palatine bones (2)  Inferior nasal Conchae (2) Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh!

20 Mandible  Lower jaw  Largest, strongest bone of face  Articulates at the temporomandibular joint (TMJ): only freely movable joint in skull

21 Figure 7.11a Mandibular angle Ramus of mandible Body of mandible (a) Mandible, right lateral view Temporomandibular joint

22 Maxillary Bones  Medially fused to form upper jaw and central portion of facial skeleton  Keystone bone of the facial bones: all facial bones except the mandible articulate with it

23 Zygomatic Bones  Cheekbones  Inferolateral margins of orbits  Articulates with 3 separate zygomatic processes  Frontal zygomatic process  Maxillary zygomatic process  Temporal zygomatic process

24 Nasal Bones and Lacrimal Bones  Nasal bones  Form bridge of nose  Attach to the cartilage that forms most of the skeleton of the nose  Lacrimal bones  In medial walls of orbits  Forms part of the canal that drains tears into the nasal cavity Lacrimation = crying/tear production

25 Figure 7.4a Parietal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible (a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis Frontal bone Vomer Ethmoid bone

26 Palatine Bones and Vomer  Palatine bones  Posterior one-third of hard palate  Posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity  Small part of the orbits  Vomer  Plow shaped  Lower part of nasal septum

27 Figure 7.6a Median palatine suture Intermaxillary suture Maxilla Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Foramen magnum Maxilla Zygomatic bone Temporal bone (zygomatic process) Vomer (a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed) Temporal bone Parietal bone Palatine bone

28 Orbits  Encase eyes and lacrimal glands  Sites of attachment for eye muscles  Formed by parts of seven bones  Frontal bones  Zygomatic  Sphenoid bones  Palatine  Ethmoid  Lacrimal  Maxilla Friendly Zebras Speed Past Elderly Lions Mating

29 Roof of orbit Medial wall Floor of orbit Nasal bone Lateral wall of orbit Zygomatic bone (b) Contribution of each of the seven bones forming the right orbit Lesser wing of sphenoid bone Orbital plate of frontal bone Zygomatic process of frontal bone Greater wing of sphenoid bone Orbital surface of zygomatic bone Sphenoid body Orbital plate of ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Orbital surface of maxillary bone Zygomatic bone Figure 7.13a

30 Nasal Cavity  Roof, lateral walls, and floor formed by parts of four bones  Ethmoid  Palatine bones  Maxillary bones  Inferior nasal conchae  Nasal septum of bone and hyaline cartilage  Ethmoid  Vomer  Anterior septal cartilage

31 Figure 7.14a Maxillary bone (palatine process) Palatine bone (perpendicular plate) Palatine bone (horizontal plate) (a) Bones forming the left lateral wall of the nasal cavity (nasal septum removed) Sphenoid bone Frontal sinus Ethmoid bone Nasal bone

32 Paranasal Sinuses  Mucosa-lined, air-filled spaces  Lighten the skull  Enhance resonance of voice  Found in frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones

33 Figure 7.15 Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells (sinus) Maxillary sinus Sphenoid sinus Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells Maxillary sinus Sphenoid sinus (a) Anterior aspect (b) Medial aspect

34 Hyoid Bone  Not a bone of the skull  Does not articulate directly with another bone  Site of attachment for muscles of swallowing and speech

35 Developmental Aspects of the Skull At birth, the newborn’s skull not fully developed and sutures have not yet fused Allows for head compression during birth Allows for brain growth in the infant Unossified regions are covered with fibrous membranes called fontanelles “little fountains” Anterior fontanelle is present until 1-1/2 –2 years of age

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37 Homeostatic Imbalance of the Skull The Cleft Lip and Palate Caused by right and left halves of the palate failing to fuse medially Leads to difficulties feeding/nursing Risk for aspiration (inhalation) pneumonia

38 Review Slides

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