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Bones Of The Axial Skeleton THE SKULL. Figure 7.1a Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) (a) Anterior view Facial bones Cranium Sacrum Vertebral column.

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Presentation on theme: "Bones Of The Axial Skeleton THE SKULL. Figure 7.1a Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) (a) Anterior view Facial bones Cranium Sacrum Vertebral column."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bones Of The Axial Skeleton THE SKULL

2 Figure 7.1a Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) (a) Anterior view Facial bones Cranium Sacrum Vertebral column Clavicle Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Ulna Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

3 Figure 7.4a Parietal bone Squamous part of frontal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Infraorbital foramen Mental foramen (a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis Frontal bone Glabella Frontonasal suture Supraorbital foramen (notch) Supraorbital margin Superior orbital fissure Inferior orbital fissure Middle nasal concha Inferior nasal concha Vomer Optic canal Perpendicular plate Ethmoid bone

4 The Skull Two sets of bones 1.Cranial bones Enclose the brain in the cranial cavity – Cranial vault (calvaria) – Cranial base: anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae Provide sites of attachment for head and neck muscles 2.Facial bones Framework of face Cavities for special sense organs for sight, taste, and smell Openings for air and food passage Sties of attachment for teeth and muscles of facial expression

5 Figure 7.2a Bones of cranium (cranial vault) Lambdoid suture Facial bones Squamous suture (a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skull Coronal suture

6 Figure 7.2b Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa (b) Superior view of the cranial fossae

7 Cranial Bones Frontal bone Parietal bones (2) Occipital bone Temporal bones (2) Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone

8 Coronal suture Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Lacrimal fossa Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Alveolar margins Mandible Mental foramen Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Occipital bone Occipitomastoid suture External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Mandibular condyle Mandibular notch Mandibular ramus (a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull Mandibular angle Coronoid process Zygomatic process Temporal bone Figure 7.5a

9 Notable Features of Cranial Bones Frontal Bone Anterior portion of cranium Most of anterior cranial fossa Superior wall of orbits Contains air-filled frontal sinuses Parietal Bones Superior and lateral aspects of cranial vault Four sutures mark the articulations of parietal bones with frontal, occipital, and temporal bones: 1.Coronal suture—between parietal bones and frontal bone 2.Sagittal suture—between right and left parietal bones 3.Lambdoid suture—between parietal bones and occipital bone 4.Squamous (squamosal) sutures—between parietal and temporal bones on each side of skull

10 Figure 7.4b Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Superior nuchal line External occipital protuberance Sutural bone (tiny irregular bones within sutures) Occipitomastoid suture (b) Posterior view Occipital condyle External occipital crest Inferior nuchal line Mastoid process Parietal bone Sagittal suture

11 Figure 7.6a Incisive fossa Median palatine suture Intermaxillary suture Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Foramen ovale Foramen lacerum Carotid canal External acoustic meatus Stylomastoid foramen Jugular foramen Foramen magnum Occipital condyle Inferior nuchal line Superior nuchal line Foramen spinosum Maxilla (palatine process) Hard palate Zygomatic bone Temporal bone (zygomatic process) Mandibular fossa Vomer Styloid process External occipital crest External occipital protuberance (a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed) Mastoid process Temporal bone (petrous part) Pharyngeal tubercle of basilar region of the occipital bone Parietal bone Palatine bone (horizontal plate)

12 Figure 7.8 Mastoid region External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Tympanic region Mandibular fossa Zygomatic process Squamous region

13 Notable Features of Cranial Bones Occipital Bone Most of skull’s posterior wall and posterior cranial fossa Articulates with 1st vertebra Sites of attachment for the ligamentum nuchae and many neck and back muscles Temporal Bones Inferolateral aspects of skull and parts of cranial floor Four major regions – Squamous – Tympanic – Mastoid – Petrous

14 Figure 7.9a Greater wing Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Body of sphenoid Superior orbital fissure (a) Superior view of Sphenoid bone Optic canal Lesser wing

15 Figure 7.9b Body of sphenoid Greater wing Superior orbital fissure Lesser wing Pterygoid process (b) Posterior view Sphenoid Bone Complex, bat-shaped bone Keystone bone - Articulates with all other cranial bones Three pairs of processes Greater wings Lesser wings Pterygoid processes

16 Ethmoid Bone Orbital plate Ethmoidal air cells Perpendicular plate Middle nasal concha Cribriform plate Olfactory foramina Crista galli Left lateral mass Deepest skull bone Superior part of nasal septum, roof of nasal cavities Contributes to medial wall of orbits

17 Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica Middle cranial fossa Temporal bone (petrous part) Posterior cranial fossa Parietal bone Occipital bone Foramen magnum (a) Superior view of the skull, calvaria removed Frontal bone Olfactory foramina Optic canal Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Jugular foramen Hypoglossal canal Foramen lacerum Internal acoustic meatus Cribriform plate Ethmoid bone Crista galli Sphenoid Anterior cranial fossa Lesser wing Greater wing View

18 Figure 7.4a Parietal bone Squamous part of frontal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Infraorbital foramen Mental foramen (a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis Frontal bone Glabella Frontonasal suture Supraorbital foramen (notch) Supraorbital margin Superior orbital fissure Inferior orbital fissure Middle nasal concha Inferior nasal concha Vomer Optic canal Perpendicular plate Ethmoid bone

19 Facial Bones Mandible Maxillary bones (maxillae) (2) Zygomatic bones (2) Nasal bones (2) Lacrimal bones (2) Palatine bones (2) Vomer Inferior nasal conchae (2)

20 Figure 7.4a Parietal bone Squamous part of frontal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Infraorbital foramen Mental foramen (a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis Frontal bone Glabella Frontonasal suture Supraorbital foramen (notch) Supraorbital margin Superior orbital fissure Inferior orbital fissure Middle nasal concha Inferior nasal concha Vomer Optic canal Perpendicular plate Ethmoid bone

21 Figure 7.6a Incisive fossa Median palatine suture Intermaxillary suture Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Foramen ovale Foramen lacerum Carotid canal External acoustic meatus Stylomastoid foramen Jugular foramen Foramen magnum Occipital condyle Inferior nuchal line Superior nuchal line Foramen spinosum Maxilla (palatine process) Hard palate Zygomatic bone Temporal bone (zygomatic process) Mandibular fossa Vomer Styloid process External occipital crest External occipital protuberance (a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed) Mastoid process Temporal bone (petrous part) Pharyngeal tubercle of basilar region of the occipital bone Parietal bone Palatine bone (horizontal plate)

22 Frontal process Articulates with frontal bone Anterior nasal spine Infraorbital foramen Alveolar margin (b) Maxilla, right lateral view Orbital surface Zygomatic process (cut) Maxillary Bones Medially fused to form upper jaw and central portion of facial skeleton Keystone bones – Articulate with all other facial bones except mandible

23 Coronoid process Mandibular foramen Mental foramen Mandibular angle Ramus of mandible Mandibular condyle Mandibular notch Mandibular fossa of temporal bone Body of mandible Alveolar margin (a) Mandible, right lateral view Temporomandibular joint Lower jaw Largest, strongest bone of face Temporomandibular joint: only freely movable joint in skull

24 Facial Bones Zygomatic Bones Cheekbones Inferolateral margins of orbits Nasal Bones And Lacrimal Bones Nasal bones – Form bridge of nose Lacrimal bones – In medial walls of orbits – Lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac Palatine bones – Posterior one-third of hard palate – Posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity – Small part of the orbits Vomer – Plow shaped – Lower part of nasal septum Inferior Nasal Conchae Form part of lateral walls of nasal cavity Orbits Encase eyes and lacrimal glands Sites of attachment for eye muscles Formed by parts of seven bones

25 Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells (sinus) Maxillary sinus Sphenoid sinus Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells Maxillary sinus Sphenoid sinus (a) Anterior aspect (b) Medial aspect Mucosa-lined, air-filled spaces Lighten the skull Enhance resonance of voice Found in frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones Paranasal Sinuses


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