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Structures of Bones Articulations: Articulations: –contacts with other bones Marks: Marks: –areas of muscle and ligament attachment Foraminae: Foraminae:

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Presentation on theme: "Structures of Bones Articulations: Articulations: –contacts with other bones Marks: Marks: –areas of muscle and ligament attachment Foraminae: Foraminae:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Structures of Bones Articulations: Articulations: –contacts with other bones Marks: Marks: –areas of muscle and ligament attachment Foraminae: Foraminae: –openings for nerves and blood vessels

2 The Axial Skeleton 3D Peel-Away of Whole Axial Skeleton PLAY Figure 7–1a

3 The Axial Skeleton The axial skeleton: The axial skeleton: –forms the longitudinal axis of the body –has 80 bones

4 Bones of the Axial Skeleton The skull: The skull: –8 cranial bones –14 facial bones

5 Bones of the Axial Skeleton Bones associated with the skull: Bones associated with the skull: –6 auditory ossicles –the hyoid bone

6 Bones of the Axial Skeleton The vertebral column: The vertebral column: –24 vertebrae –the sacrum –the coccyx

7 Bones of the Axial Skeleton The thoracic cage: The thoracic cage: –24 ribs –the sternum

8 Functions of the Axial Skeleton Supports and protects organs in body cavities Supports and protects organs in body cavities Attaches to muscles of: Attaches to muscles of: –head, neck, and trunk –respiration –appendicular skeleton

9 The Skull The skull protects: The skull protects: –the brain –entrances to respiratory system –entrance to digestive system

10 The Skull PLAY The Adult Skull Figure 7–2

11 The Skull Has 22 bones: Has 22 bones: –8 cranial bones: form the braincase or cranium form the braincase or cranium –14 facial bones: protect and support entrances to digestive and respiratory tracts protect and support entrances to digestive and respiratory tracts

12 Cranial Bones Enclose the cranial cavity Enclose the cranial cavity Which contains the brain: Which contains the brain: –and its fluids, blood vessels, nerves, and membranes

13 Superficial Facial Bones Maxillary Maxillary Lacrimal Lacrimal Nasal Nasal Zygomatic Zygomatic Mandible Mandible

14 Deep Facial Bones Palatine bones Palatine bones Inferior nasal conchae Inferior nasal conchae Vomer Vomer

15 Sinuses Cavities which decrease the weight of the skull: Cavities which decrease the weight of the skull: –lined with mucus membranes –protect the entrances of the respiratory system

16 Sutures The immovable joints of the skull The immovable joints of the skull Figure 7–3a, b

17 Sutures Figure 7–3c

18 Cranial Bones The 8 cranial bones The 8 cranial bones Figure 7–4a, b

19 The Cranial Bones Occipital bone Occipital bone Frontal bone Frontal bone Sphenoid Sphenoid Ethmoid Ethmoid Parietal bones Parietal bones Temporal bones Temporal bones

20 Foramina of the Occipital Bone Foramen magnum: Foramen magnum: –connects cranial and spinal cavities Jugular foramen: Jugular foramen: –for jugular vein Hypoglossal canals: Hypoglossal canals: –for hypoglossal nerves

21 Functions of the Parietal Bones Forms part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the cranium Forms part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the cranium

22 The Frontal Bone Figure 7–6

23 Functions of the Frontal Bone Forms the anterior cranium and upper eyesockets Forms the anterior cranium and upper eyesockets Contains frontal sinuses Contains frontal sinuses

24 The Temporal Bones Figure 7–7

25 The Sphenoid Figure 7–8

26 The Ethmoid Figure 7–9

27 The Maxillary Bones The largest facial bones The largest facial bones Figure 7–10a

28 The Palatine Bones Figure 7–10b,c

29 The Small Bones of the Face Figure 7–11

30 Functions of the Inferior Nasal Conchae To create air turbulence in the nasal cavity To create air turbulence in the nasal cavity To increase the epithelial surface area To increase the epithelial surface area To warm and humidify inhaled air To warm and humidify inhaled air

31 The Mandible Figure 7–12a,b

32 The Hyoid Bone Figure 7–12c

33 The Orbital Complex Portions of 7 cranial and facial bones Portions of 7 cranial and facial bones Figure 7–13

34 The Nasal Complex Bones of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses Bones of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses Figure 7–14

35 Paranasal Sinuses Air-filled chambers connected to the nasal cavities: Air-filled chambers connected to the nasal cavities: –lighten skull bones –provide mucous epithelium (flushes nasal cavities)

36 The Vertebral Column The spine or vertebral column: The spine or vertebral column: –protects the spinal cord –supports the head and body

37 Regions and Curves of the Vertebral Column 26 bones: 26 bones: –24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and coccyx PLAY The Vertebral Column Figure 7–16

38 Vertebrae of the Vertebral Column The neck: The neck: –7 cervical vertebrae The upper back: The upper back: –12 thoracic vertebrae –each articulate with one or more pairs of ribs The lower back: The lower back: –5 lumbar vertebrae

39 The Sacrum and Coccyx The 5th lumbar vertebra articulates with the sacrum The 5th lumbar vertebra articulates with the sacrum The sacrum articulates with the coccyx The sacrum articulates with the coccyx

40 4 Curvatures of the Vertebral Column 1. Cervical curve 2. Thoracic curve 3. Lumbar curve 4. Sacral curve

41 Primary Curves Thoracic and sacral curves: Thoracic and sacral curves: –are called primary curves (present during fetal development) –or accommodation curves (accommodate internal organs)

42 Secondary Curves Lumbar and cervical curves: Lumbar and cervical curves: –are called secondary curves (appear after birth) –or compensation curves (shift body weight for upright posture)

43 Structure of a Vertebra Figure 7–17a,b

44 The 3 Parts of a Vertebra The vertebral body (centrum): The vertebral body (centrum): –transfers weight along the spine The vertebral arch: The vertebral arch: –posterior margin of vertebral foramen The articular processes: The articular processes: –lateral projections between laminae and pedicles

45 The Vertebral Arch Pedicles: Pedicles: –walls of the vertebral arch Laminae: Laminae: –roof of the vertebral arch Spinous process: Spinous process: –projection where vertebral laminae fuse Transverse process: Transverse process: –projection where laminae join pedicles


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