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Class Slides Set 16A The Skull. Many changes take place in the skull...

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Presentation on theme: "Class Slides Set 16A The Skull. Many changes take place in the skull..."— Presentation transcript:

1 Class Slides Set 16A The Skull

2 Many changes take place in the skull...

3 The skull... the “occipital condyles” have moved forward to an intermediary position...

4 The skull... occipital condyles = the hinges on which the skull articulates with the spine

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7 The skull... foramen magnum = the opening through which the spinal cord passes from the “cranium”

8 The skull... the “foramen magnum” has also moved forward and downward...

9 Position of the foramen magnum in (a) a human and (b) a chimpanzee. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 203

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15 The skull... cranium = the skull without the lower jaw

16 The skull... the lower jaw = mandible

17 Modern human cranium. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 432

18 The skull... the eyes are placed at the front of the head and operate together... –this results in stereoscopic vision and 3-D depth perception

19 Overlapping visual fields (binocular vision) in primates Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 115

20 The skull of a gibbon (left) compared to that of a red wolf (right) Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 116

21 The skull... diurnal primates also have color perception diurnal primates are those active during the day, as are apes, monkeys, and humans...

22 The skull... some adult male apes have a sharp crest along the top of the skull – “sagittal crest”

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28 The skull... heavy chewing and neck muscles attach to the sagittal crest

29 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 245 Satittal crests and temporal muscle orientations. Hominid compared to pongid. (Line of greatest muscle force is shown in red.)

30 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 237 The “black skull,” WT Australopithecus aethiopicus

31 The skull... “sagittal ridge” – a smaller slightly raised ridge running down the center of the skull (aka “sagittal keel”)

32 Homo erectus Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 227

33 The skull... most apes have a “supraorbital ridge” over the eyes

34 The skull... supraorbital ridge = a marked bulge of bone across the region over the eyes

35 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 245 Satittal crests and temporal muscle orientations. Hominid compared to pongid. (Line of greatest muscle force is shown in red.)

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38 The skull... modern humans have cranial base flexure (basicranium) (bend)

39 Modern human cranium. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 432

40 The skull... flexure in the base of the skull (the basicranium) seems to relate to a low larynx...

41 Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 377 Larynx / Pharynx

42 The skull... larynx – the voice box (which contains the vocal cords)

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44 The skull... and a low larynx is associated with a longer pharynx...

45 The skull... pharynx – the throat above the larynx

46 Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 377 Larynx / Pharynx

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48 Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 377 Larynx / Pharynx

49 The skull... and a longer pharynx is a feature associated with human speech

50 The skull... noses are elevated in humans, and are separated by the septum into two chambers

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52 The skull... human upper lips are relatively short, and are never as thin as apes’ lips

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54 Next: Brains Continue on to Set # 16BSet # 16B

55 End of Class Slides Set # 16A Continue on to Set # 16BSet # 16B


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