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Class Slides Set 15A Bipedalism Legs/Feet and Pelvis.

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Presentation on theme: "Class Slides Set 15A Bipedalism Legs/Feet and Pelvis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Class Slides Set 15A Bipedalism Legs/Feet and Pelvis

2 Bipedalism Legs/Feet and Pelvis

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4 Arm swinging and erect (bipedal) or semi-erect walking resulted in a number of postcranial changes

5 Postcranial = below the head (with bipeds) behind the head (with quadrupeds)

6 Modern human Postcrania New World monkey Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., pp. 200, 429, 121

7 Apes The ability to assume a fairly erect posture produced important changes

8 Chimpanzee The Primates, Time-Life (1974) p. 71

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11 Bipedal Locomotion Why bipedalism?

12 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids.

13 Bipedalism Bipedalism is related to tool use

14 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids.

15 Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 275 Positive Feedback Systems.

16 Acheulian biface (“hand axe”) Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 239

17 Bipedalism more about bipedalism and to tool use later

18 Bipedalism Bipedalism also makes hunting more energy efficient

19 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids.

20 The Primates, Time-Life (1974) p. 44

21 Bipedalism Seed and nut gathering and Feeding from bushes

22 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids.

23 Bipedalism Bipedalism and vision (visual surveillance)

24 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids.

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27 Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 114 Eye Level and Sight.

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29 Bipedalism Bipedalism and Long-distance walking

30 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids.

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32 Bipedalism Male help in “provisioning” Owen Lovejoy “provisioning hypothesis”

33 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids.

34 Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 270 Pliocene Adaptations. (Lovejoy)

35 Bipedalism Bipedalism and other hominid traits

36 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids. Not on the chart

37 Bipedalism body temperature

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40 Bipedalism R. Falk (1989) suggested that bipedalism resulted in the development of a cooling mechanism for the brain. CA 31:2:187

41 Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 268 Body Surface and Solar Radiation.

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43 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids. Not on the chart

44 Bipedalism may have been an arboreal forest adaptation

45 Video: Search for the First Human -- A Secrets of the Dead Special Week 07

46 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids. Not on the chart

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48 B ipedal walking resulted in a number of postcranial changes in the legs and feet...

49 The legs and feet... feet become more foot-like

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51 gibbons bonobos chimps gorillas humans Campbell and Loy, Humankind Emerging, 8th ed, p. 138f orangutans gibbons bonoboschimpsgorillas humans

52 Foot (pedal) anatomy. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 435

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57 Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 383 Grover Krantz.

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61 Foot (pedal) anatomy. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 436

62 Leg bones are much stouter and have more pronounced dorsal ridges (on the back)

63 Leg muscle structures change

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67 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 224 Comparison of muscles that act to extend the hip.

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70 Humans have developed a “closed-knee stance”

71 Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 193 Closed-Knee Stance.

72 WT from Nariokotome, Kenya: the most complete Homo erectus specimen yet found Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 235

73 Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 242

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75 There is a loss of some mobility and “prehensility” in feet

76 Prehensility = the ability to grasp

77 White-handed gibbon Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 131

78 A number of changes take place in the pelvis...

79 becomes shorter and wider... has a “distinct pelvic bowl”... and the muscle attachment ridges become heavier... The Pelvis

80 becomes shorter and wider... has a “distinct pelvic bowl”... and the muscle attachment ridges become heavier... The Pelvis

81 Ossa coxae. (a) Homo sapiens. (b) Australopithecus. (c) Chimpanzee xx Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 199

82 Pelvic girdles. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 435

83 becomes shorter and wider... has a “distinct pelvic bowl”... and the muscle attachment ridges become heavier... The Pelvis

84 Pelvic girdles. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 435

85 And the muscle attachment ridges one the pelvis become heavier...

86 Ossa coxae. (a) Homo sapiens. (b) Australopithecus. (c) Chimpanzee xx Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 199

87 The human os coxae, composed of three bones. (R) Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 199

88 More on pelvic changes later, with the discussion of Australopithecus (“southern ape”)

89 External tails are lost

90 Skeleton of a brachiator (gibbon) Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 121

91 Continue on to Set #15BSet #15B The Upper Body Modern human skeleton Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 223


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