Primates Primates are an order of mammals which includes lemurs, monkeys, apes, and humans Where do we separate?
COMMON PRIMATE TRAITS 5 DIGITS ON BOTH HANDS & FEET NAILS INSTEAD OF CLAWS FLEXIBLE HANDS WITH ABILITY TO GRIP ERECT UPPER BODY COLLARBONE SMALL NOSE, NO ACUTE SENSE OF SMELL USE OF VISION AS PRIMARY SENSE LARGE & COMPLEX BRAIN EFFICIENT FETAL NOURISHMENT LONG PERIODS OF INFANT DEPENDENCY AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR ADULT MALES ALWAYS PRESENT WITHIN GROUP (HELP IN CHILD REARING).
Trends in Primate Evolution 1)Larger body size 2)Increasing brain size or cranial capacity 3)More upright standing 4)Living in or near trees 5)A diet that includes plants and animals 6)Binocular vision that allows for depth perception
Trends in Primate Evolution continued… 7)Specialized color vision 8)A decreasing number of young produced al one time 9)Longer embryonic and childhood development 10)Specialized thumb 11)Increasing lifespan 12)Growing complexity of social behavior
Differences Between Man and Apes Humans have the development of more specialized areas in the brain Humans have a more vertical face plate Humans have a smaller jaw and more evenly rounded arch Humans have smaller canine teeth Humans have smaller molars Humans have longer lower limbs (legs) and shorter upper limbs (arms)
The biggy…Bipedalism Bipedalism is erect posture and walking with two feet Bipedalism was important in developing the ability to hunt and make tools
Hominids Hominids are a family of primates which includes all two-legged manlike species, extinct or living Examples of hominids are erect walking apes, ourselves and our ancestors
The Australopithecines Means “Southern Ape” Australopithecus was an erect walking ape that was a member of the hominid family There were at least 5 kinds of Australopithecines, but probably one was man’s ancestor Australopithecines lived 5 to 1 million years ago
Lucy Lucy was an Australopithecus Afarensis Her skeleton was discovered by Donald Johanson in Ethiopia in 1974 She was the most complete pre-human skeleton ever found Her bones gave many clues about her anatomy, diet and lifestyle
Footprints at Laetoli – 3.6 mya – Footprints of two creatures formed in fresh lava ash. 1975 Leakey – Mary Leakey – Laetoli, Tanzania Significance – Determined Height by length of stride 4’-4’8” – Confirmed Bipedality by this time Big toe in line Heel toe strike when walking More Discoveries of A. Afarensis Fossils
Louis Leakey and Olduvai Gorge Dr. Louis Leakey and his wife, Mary, did their fieldwork at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania Dr. Richard Leakey, their son, currently does fieldwork in the Lake Turkana region Louis Leakey is credited with the discovery of Homo Habilis, the first human
Homo Habilis 2.3-1.6 mya “Handy Man” Homo Habilis was the earliest known species of the genus homo Probably made tools Probably scavenged for meat and ate vegetation Skull was 30% larger than Australopithecines Brain much more human like in shape.
Homo Erectus 1.9-.3 mya “Erect or Upright Man” Homo Erectus was the first large brained human Sometimes called “Java Man” or “Peking Man”
Homo Heidelbergensis 700-100,000 years ago The between species. – Features of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. – Very robust mandible, no chin – Very prominent brow ridge – Increased cranial capacity. – Smaller teeth but bigger than Homo sapiens.
Neanderthal Man 250-30,000 years ago Homo Neanderthalensis This species was human, but was probably not an ancestor to modern humans
Neanderthal Man Neanderthal man had large arms and legs His brain was actually larger than modern humans, but the language and speech center of the brain was not well developed Neantherthal man was a hunter who made tools, had primitive language skills and used fire
Homo Sapiens-Sapiens 130,000 years ago-Present “Thinking Man” Lighter build in skeleton Enormous brain capacity – 1300 cc from 400 cc of early Australopithicine. Early discoveries called Cro-Magnon Man.