Presentation on theme: "Human Anatomy & Physiology"— Presentation transcript:
1Human Anatomy & Physiology SkullHuman Anatomy & Physiology“Skeletal System”Dr. Steve W. AltstielNaples High School
2A. SkullThe skull has 22 bones (some doubled), so 14 different named bones.Cranium – part that holds and protects the brain… composed of 8 bones held together by sutures.SuturesCoronalSagittalLambdoidalSquamous
3SkullFontanels – incomplete sutures in infants – allow bones to slide during birth – allow for growth of the brain.Sinuses – air-filled cavities – function to lighten bones – open into the nasal cavity.Foramina – “canals” – holes in the skull to allow passage of nerves, vessels, and spinal cord.Bones – 8 – (actually six named)
4Skull (8 Bones)Frontal bone – found on forehead and the roof of the orbits (eye sockets).Parietal bones – 2 – make up top and upper sides of the skull.Occipital bone – 1 – makes up a large part of the back and bottom of the skull.Foramen magnum – “Big hole” – spinal cord attached to the brain and arteries pass through this hole.Occipital condyles – articulates with the first vertebra.
6Skull (8 Bones) Temporal bones – 2 – on sides of the skull. Ear – external auditory canal, middle and inner ear.Mandibular fossa - <--> (articulates with) mandible.Mastoid process – muscle attachment – contains sinuses.Styloid process – attachment for bone and muscle.Zygomatic process - <--> zygomatic bone & chewing muscle.Carotid canal – internal carotid artery passage.Jugular foramen – interior jugular and cranial nerve passage.
7SkullSphenoid bone - <--> all the other cranial bones. Looks like a bat.Optical canal – optic nerve passage for attachment to brain.Superior orbital fissure – passage for cranial nerves and nerves that move the eyeball.Sella turcica – place that holds the pituitary gland.Ethmoid bone – hard to see. Located in front of the sphenoid bone. Largely involved with the nasal cavity and orbit.Cribiform plate – “sieve-like” – passage for olfactory nerves allowing you to smell.Perpendicular plate – forms the upper nasal septum.Superior and middle nasal conchae – shelves found in nasal cavity on either side of the perpendicular plate.
8SkullFacial bones – 14 – only eight are named – 13 are immovable, and 1 is moveable. Overlap of cranial and facial bones make up the orbit and nasal cavityMaxillary bones (maxillae) – upper jaw and also lower part of the orbit.Palatine process (anterior hard palate) – makes up the anterior hard palate and separates the nasal cavity from the mouth.Alveolar process – holds upper teeth in its sockets.Palatine bones – make up posterior hard palate.Zygomatic bones - cheek bones.Temporal process (of the zygomatic bone) <--> zygomatic process (of the temporal bone).Forms the Zygomatic Arch.
9SkullLacrimal bones – part of the orbit – contains the tear duct.Nasal bone – 2 – forms the bridge of the nose.Vomer – makes up part of the nasal septum (lower).Inferior nasal conchae – 2 – part of the lateral nasal wall.Mandible – only moveable bone – make up the lower jaw.BodyRamus – extension upward.Mandibular condyle - <--> the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone – forms the temporal mandibular joint.Coronoid process – muscle attachment.Alveolar arch – sockets for lower teeth.Hyoid – U-shaped bone – does not <--> the rest of the skeleton – attachment for tongue and larynx.