Presentation on theme: "Skull Human Anatomy & Physiology “Skeletal System” Dr. Steve W. Altstiel Naples High School."— Presentation transcript:
Skull Human Anatomy & Physiology “Skeletal System” Dr. Steve W. Altstiel Naples High School
A. Skull The skull has 22 bones (some doubled), so 14 different named bones. 1.Cranium – part that holds and protects the brain… composed of 8 bones held together by sutures. a.Sutures 1)Coronal 2)Sagittal 3)Lambdoidal 4)Squamous
Skull b.Fontanels – incomplete sutures in infants – allow bones to slide during birth – allow for growth of the brain. c.Sinuses – air-filled cavities – function to lighten bones – open into the nasal cavity. d.Foramina – “canals” – holes in the skull to allow passage of nerves, vessels, and spinal cord. e.Bones – 8 – (actually six named)
Skull (8 Bones) 1)Frontal bone – found on forehead and the roof of the orbits (eye sockets). 2)Parietal bones – 2 – make up top and upper sides of the skull. 3)Occipital bone – 1 – makes up a large part of the back and bottom of the skull. o Foramen magnum – “Big hole” – spinal cord attached to the brain and arteries pass through this hole. o Occipital condyles – articulates with the first vertebra.
Skull (8 Bones) 4)Temporal bones – 2 – on sides of the skull. o Ear – external auditory canal, middle and inner ear. o Mandibular fossa - (articulates with) mandible. o Mastoid process – muscle attachment – contains sinuses. o Styloid process – attachment for bone and muscle. o Zygomatic process - zygomatic bone & chewing muscle. o Carotid canal – internal carotid artery passage. o Jugular foramen – interior jugular and cranial nerve passage.
Skull 5)Sphenoid bone - all the other cranial bones. Looks like a bat. o Optical canal – optic nerve passage for attachment to brain. o Superior orbital fissure – passage for cranial nerves and nerves that move the eyeball. o Sella turcica – place that holds the pituitary gland. 6)Ethmoid bone – hard to see. Located in front of the sphenoid bone. Largely involved with the nasal cavity and orbit. o Cribiform plate – “sieve-like” – passage for olfactory nerves allowing you to smell. o Perpendicular plate – forms the upper nasal septum. o Superior and middle nasal conchae – shelves found in nasal cavity on either side of the perpendicular plate.
Skull 2.Facial bones – 14 – only eight are named – 13 are immovable, and 1 is moveable. Overlap of cranial and facial bones make up the orbit and nasal cavity 1)Maxillary bones (maxillae) – upper jaw and also lower part of the orbit. o Palatine process (anterior hard palate) – makes up the anterior hard palate and separates the nasal cavity from the mouth. o Alveolar process – holds upper teeth in its sockets. 2)Palatine bones – make up posterior hard palate. 3)Zygomatic bones - cheek bones. o Temporal process (of the zygomatic bone) zygomatic process (of the temporal bone). Forms the Zygomatic Arch.
Skull 4)Lacrimal bones – part of the orbit – contains the tear duct. 5)Nasal bone – 2 – forms the bridge of the nose. 6)Vomer – makes up part of the nasal septum (lower). 7)Inferior nasal conchae – 2 – part of the lateral nasal wall. 8)Mandible – only moveable bone – make up the lower jaw. o Body o Ramus – extension upward. o Mandibular condyle - the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone – forms the temporal mandibular joint. o Coronoid process – muscle attachment. o Alveolar arch – sockets for lower teeth. B.Hyoid – U-shaped bone – does not the rest of the skeleton – attachment for tongue and larynx.