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Human Anatomy & Physiology

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1 Human Anatomy & Physiology
Skull Human Anatomy & Physiology “Skeletal System” Dr. Steve W. Altstiel Naples High School

2 A. Skull The skull has 22 bones (some doubled), so 14 different named bones. Cranium – part that holds and protects the brain… composed of 8 bones held together by sutures. Sutures Coronal Sagittal Lambdoidal Squamous

3 Skull Fontanels – incomplete sutures in infants – allow bones to slide during birth – allow for growth of the brain. Sinuses – air-filled cavities – function to lighten bones – open into the nasal cavity. Foramina – “canals” – holes in the skull to allow passage of nerves, vessels, and spinal cord. Bones – 8 – (actually six named)

4 Skull (8 Bones) Frontal bone – found on forehead and the roof of the orbits (eye sockets). Parietal bones – 2 – make up top and upper sides of the skull. Occipital bone – 1 – makes up a large part of the back and bottom of the skull. Foramen magnum – “Big hole” – spinal cord attached to the brain and arteries pass through this hole. Occipital condyles – articulates with the first vertebra.


6 Skull (8 Bones) Temporal bones – 2 – on sides of the skull.
Ear – external auditory canal, middle and inner ear. Mandibular fossa - <--> (articulates with) mandible. Mastoid process – muscle attachment – contains sinuses. Styloid process – attachment for bone and muscle. Zygomatic process - <--> zygomatic bone & chewing muscle. Carotid canal – internal carotid artery passage. Jugular foramen – interior jugular and cranial nerve passage.

7 Skull Sphenoid bone - <--> all the other cranial bones. Looks like a bat. Optical canal – optic nerve passage for attachment to brain. Superior orbital fissure – passage for cranial nerves and nerves that move the eyeball. Sella turcica – place that holds the pituitary gland. Ethmoid bone – hard to see. Located in front of the sphenoid bone. Largely involved with the nasal cavity and orbit. Cribiform plate – “sieve-like” – passage for olfactory nerves allowing you to smell. Perpendicular plate – forms the upper nasal septum. Superior and middle nasal conchae – shelves found in nasal cavity on either side of the perpendicular plate.

8 Skull Facial bones – 14 – only eight are named – 13 are immovable, and 1 is moveable. Overlap of cranial and facial bones make up the orbit and nasal cavity Maxillary bones (maxillae) – upper jaw and also lower part of the orbit. Palatine process (anterior hard palate) – makes up the anterior hard palate and separates the nasal cavity from the mouth. Alveolar process – holds upper teeth in its sockets. Palatine bones – make up posterior hard palate. Zygomatic bones - cheek bones. Temporal process (of the zygomatic bone) <--> zygomatic process (of the temporal bone). Forms the Zygomatic Arch.

9 Skull Lacrimal bones – part of the orbit – contains the tear duct. Nasal bone – 2 – forms the bridge of the nose. Vomer – makes up part of the nasal septum (lower). Inferior nasal conchae – 2 – part of the lateral nasal wall. Mandible – only moveable bone – make up the lower jaw. Body Ramus – extension upward. Mandibular condyle - <--> the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone – forms the temporal mandibular joint. Coronoid process – muscle attachment. Alveolar arch – sockets for lower teeth. Hyoid – U-shaped bone – does not <--> the rest of the skeleton – attachment for tongue and larynx.

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